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Jennifer Ahern
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Jerry Menikoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
Emily J Huang, Ethan X Fang, Daniel F Hanley, Michael Rosenblum
In many randomized controlled trials, the primary analysis focuses on the average treatment effect and does not address whether treatment benefits are widespread or limited to a select few. This problem affects many disease areas, since it stems from how randomized trials, often the gold standard for evaluating treatments, are designed and analyzed. Our goal is to learn about the fraction who benefit from a new treatment using randomized trial data. We consider the case where the outcome is ordinal, with binary outcomes as a special case...
April 1, 2017: Biostatistics
Nancy Krieger, George Davey Smith
'Causal inference', in 21st century epidemiology, has notably come to stand for a specific approach, one focused primarily on counterfactual and potential outcome reasoning and using particular representations, such as directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) and Bayesian causal nets. In this essay, we suggest that in epidemiology no one causal approach should drive the questions asked or delimit what counts as useful evidence. Robust causal inference instead comprises a complex narrative, created by scientists appraising, from diverse perspectives, different strands of evidence produced by myriad methods...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Monya Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2016: Nature
Mohammad Hassan Murad, Victor M Montori, John P A Ioannidis, Roman Jaeschke, P J Devereaux, Kameshwar Prasad, Ignacio Neumann, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Thomas Agoritsas, Rose Hatala, Maureen O Meade, Peter Wyer, Deborah J Cook, Gordon Guyatt
Clinical decisions should be based on the totality of the best evidence and not the results of individual studies. When clinicians apply the results of a systematic review or meta-analysis to patient care, they should start by evaluating the credibility of the methods of the systematic review, ie, the extent to which these methods have likely protected against misleading results. Credibility depends on whether the review addressed a sensible clinical question; included an exhaustive literature search; demonstrated reproducibility of the selection and assessment of studies; and presented results in a useful manner...
July 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Brian F Mandell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2015: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
L Xu, C Q Jiang, C M Schooling, W S Zhang, K K Cheng, T H Lam
BACKGROUND: Impaired liver function has been shown to be associated with incident diabetes. The independent role of the different liver enzymes, including γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), has not been addressed properly, taking into account their high collinearity. We used partial least squares (PLS) regression to identify the contribution of ALT, AST and GGT, which appears causally associated with diabetes as a validation factor, to incident diabetes in a South China population where liver impairment and diabetes are common...
November 2015: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Amy H Kaji, Roger J Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2015: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Mark Lawler, Rick Kaplan, Richard H Wilson, Tim Maughan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2015: Oncologist
Michael T M Wang, Mark J Bolland, Andrew Grey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: JAMA Internal Medicine
Hajime Uno, Janet Wittes, Haoda Fu, Scott D Solomon, Brian Claggett, Lu Tian, Tianxi Cai, Marc A Pfeffer, Scott R Evans, Lee-Jen Wei
A noninferiority study is often used to investigate whether a treatment's efficacy or safety profile is acceptable compared with an alternative therapy regarding the time to a clinical event. The empirical quantification of the treatment difference for such a study is routinely based on the hazard ratio (HR) estimate. The HR, which is not a relative risk, may be difficult to interpret clinically, especially when the underlying proportional hazards assumption is violated. The precision of the HR estimate depends primarily on the number of observed events but not directly on exposure times or sample size of the study population...
July 21, 2015: Annals of Internal Medicine
Mervyn Susser, Ezra Susser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: American Journal of Public Health
Sarang Kim, Helaine Noveck, James Galt, Lauren Hogshire, Laura Willett, Kerry O'Rourke
PURPOSE: To compare the speed and accuracy of answering clinical questions using Google versus summary resources. METHOD: In 2011 and 2012, 48 internal medicine interns from two classes at Rutgers University Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, who had been trained to use three evidence-based summary resources, performed four-minute computer searches to answer 10 clinical questions. Half were randomized to initiate searches for answers to questions 1 to 5 using Google; the other half initiated searches using a summary resource...
June 2014: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Bart J Harvey, Thomas A Lang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2010: Chest
Anita Berglund
Epidemiology is founded on central concepts and principles, essential for conducting, reporting and critically assessing epidemiological studies. Definitions of the many concepts used in the field can be found in textbooks and via the Dictionary of Epidemiology. However, central epidemiological concepts are labelled and used in multiple ways, leading to potential misunderstanding when communicating in different fora. The aim here is to describe collaborative concept mapping, and illustrate how it can be used in teaching and learning epidemiology...
December 2015: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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