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Sarah Wieten
BACKGROUND: Expertise has been a contentious concept in Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM). Especially in the early days of the movement, expertise was taken to be exactly what EBM was rebelling against-the authoritarian pronouncements about "best" interventions dutifully learned in medical schools, sometimes with dire consequences. Since then, some proponents of EBM have tried various ways of reincorporating the idea of expertise into EBM, with mixed results. However, questions remain...
February 2, 2018: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
Miro Jakovljević, Ljerka Ostojić
The concept of evidence-based medicine (EBM), as the highest standard of health care, came into existence in 1990s to promote a systematic approach to helping clinicians in their practice to be guided by the best available scientific evidence. However, there has been an increasing number of warning reports that in modern research, misrepresented, false and unuseful findings may be the majority or even the vast majority of published research claims In spite of the huge scientific progress, pseudoscience and associated evidence biased medicine represent a serious threat to the concept of the EBM...
December 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Mostafa Alavi-Moghaddam, Shahram Yazdani, Fathie Mortazavi, Samira Chichi, Seyed-Mostafa Hosseini-Zijoud
This study aimed to compare evidence-based medicine (EBM) vs. conventional approaches to journal club sessions in teaching critical appraisal skills in reading papers by emergency medicine residents. This double cut off discontinuation regression quasi-experimental study was conducted among emergency medicine residents. EBM vs. the conventional approach were applied to teach critical appraisal skills for half of the residents as an experimental group and another half as a control group respectively. Both groups participated in one hour monthly journal club sessions for six months...
May 2016: Chonnam Medical Journal
Igho J Onakpoya, Elizabeth A Spencer, Matthew J Thompson, Carl J Heneghan
INTRODUCTION: Several orphan drugs have been approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) over the past two decades. However, the drugs are expensive, and in some instances, the evidence for effectiveness is not convincing at the time of regulatory approval. Our objective was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of orphan drugs that have been granted marketing licenses in Europe, determine the annual costs of each drug, compare the costs of branded orphan drugs against their generic equivalents, and explore any relationships between orphan drug disease prevalence and annual costs...
2015: BMJ Open
Melissa A Pynnonen, Gregory W Randolph, Jennifer J Shin
Modern medical decision making is a complex task requiring collaboration between patients and physicians. Related clinical evidence may delineate a clearly favorable path, but in other instances, uncertainty remains. Even in these circumstances, however, there are techniques that optimize decision making by blending existing evidence with individual patient values in the context of physician counseling. This installment of "Evidence-Based Medicine in Otolaryngology" focuses on the crucial issue of how practitioners may approach clinical situations where the data do not delineate a single irrefutable path...
September 2015: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Perrine Janiaud, Catherine Cornu, Behrouz Kassai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Ricardo Cypreste, Kieran Walsh, Mike Bedford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Eddy S Lang, Jose S Santa-Cruz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2015: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Manfred Anlauf, Lutz Hein, Hans-Werner Hense, Johannes Köbberling, Rainer Lasek, Reiner Leidl, Bettina Schöne-Seifert
This opinion deals critically with the so-called complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapy on the basis of current data. From the authors' perspective, CAM prescriptions and most notably the extensive current endeavours to the "integration" of CAM into conventional patient care is problematic in several respects. Thus, several CAM measures are used, although no specific effects of medicines can be proved in clinical studies. It is extensively explained that the methods used in this regard are those of evidence-based medicine, which is one of the indispensable pillars of science-oriented medicine...
2015: German Medical Science: GMS E-journal
Achilleas Thoma, Felmont F Eaves
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Andrew Lofts Gray, Fatima Suleman
BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) rely on available evidence when devising and implementing pharmaceutical policies. Aim of the review To provide a critical overview of systematic reviews of pharmaceutical policies, with particular focus on the relevance of such reviews in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: A search for systematic reviews (SRs) of studies of the interventions of interest was conducted until May 2009 in MEDLINE, EconLit, CINAHL, the Cochrane site, ProQuest, EMBASE, JOLIS, ISI Web of Science, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, International Network for Rational Use of Drugs, National Technical Information Service, Public Affairs Information Service, SourceOECD, the System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe, and the WHO library database...
October 2015: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Casper G Schoemaker, Yvo M Smulders
In 1992, the Canadian physician Gordon Guyatt wrote an article that is generally regarded as the starting point of evidence-based medicine (EBM). He described the ideas behind the McMaster residency programme for 'evidence-based practitioners', founded by David Sackett. Eight years later, in 2000, Guyatt concluded that this programme was too ambitious. In a new publication he described most doctors as 'evidence-users'. This editorial marks the transition from an individual to a collective form of EBM, emphasizing the use of evidence-based guidelines...
2015: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Rodolfo Gaeta, Nelida Gentile
The purpose of this paper is to develop some thoughts on philosophical issues surrounding evidence-based medicine (EBM), especially related to its epistemological dimensions. After considering the scope of several philosophical concepts that are relevant to the discussion, and drawing some distinctions among different aspects of EBM, we evaluate the status of EBM and suggest that EBM is mainly a meta-methodology. Then, we outline an evaluation of the thesis that EBM is a 'new paradigm' in the practice of medicine...
August 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Lauren A Maggio, Olle ten Cate, H Carrie Chen, David M Irby, Bridget C O'Brien
PURPOSE: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a fixture in many medical school curricula. Yet, little is known about the challenges medical students face in learning EBM or the educational approaches that medical schools use to overcome these challenges. METHOD: A qualitative multi-institutional case study was conducted between December 2013 and July 2014. On the basis of the Association of American Medical Colleges 2012 Medical School Graduation Questionnaire data, the authors selected 22 U...
January 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
S P Mooijaart, K Broekhuizen, S Trompet, A J M de Craen, J Gussekloo, A Oleksik, D van Heemst, G J Blauw, M Muller
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) aims to integrate three elements in patient care: the patient situation, scientific evidence, and the doctors' expertise. This review aims 1) to assess how these elements are systematically different in older patients and 2) to propose strategies how to improve EBM in older patients. The ageing process systematically affects all three elements that constitute EBM. First, ageing changes the physiology of the older body, makes the patient more vulnerable with more multimorbidity and polypharmacy and affects somatic, psychological and social function...
June 2015: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Karim D Mahmoud, Ryan J Lennon, David R Holmes
Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard for evidence-based medicine. However, an accurate estimation of the event rate is crucial for their ability to test clinical hypotheses. Overestimation of event rates reduces the required sample size but can compromise the statistical power of the RCT. Little is known about the prevalence, extent, and impact of overestimation of event rates. The latest RCTs on 10 preselected topics in the field of cardiovascular interventions and devices were selected, and actual primary event rates in the control group were compared with their respective event rate estimations...
August 1, 2015: American Journal of Cardiology
Lauren A Maggio, Nancy H Tannery, H Carrie Chen, Olle ten Cate, Bridget O'Brien
PURPOSE: To characterize recent evidence-based medicine (EBM) educational interventions for medical students and suggest future directions for EBM education. METHOD: The authors searched the MEDLINE, Scopus, Educational Resource Information Center, and Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews databases for English-language articles published between 2006 and 2011 that featured medical students and interventions addressing multiple EBM skills. They extracted data on learner and instructor characteristics, educational settings, teaching methods, and EBM skills covered...
July 2013: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
David C Aron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2015: Medical Care
Maartje H J Swennen, Geert J M G van der Heijden, Hennie R Boeije, Nanda van Rheenen, Floor J M Verheul, Yolanda van der Graaf, Cor J Kalkman
PURPOSE: Many primary qualitative studies of barriers and facilitators for doctors' use of evidence-based medicine (EBM) are available, but knowledge remains fragmented. This study sought to synthesize the results of these qualitative studies, taking the variability across context (i.e., medical disciplines, career stages, practice settings, and time of study) into account. METHOD: The authors searched PubMed through April 26, 2012, and independently selected studies according to prespecified criteria for relevance and methodological quality...
September 2013: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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