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Montserrat Lara-Velazquez, Rawan Al-Kharboosh, Stephanie Jeanneret, Carla Vazquez-Ramos, Deependra Mahato, Daryoush Tavanaiepour, Gazanfar Rahmathulla, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary intracranial neoplasia, and is characterized by its extremely poor prognosis. Despite maximum surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, the histological heterogeneity of GBM makes total eradication impossible, due to residual cancer cells invading the parenchyma, which is not otherwise seen in radiographic images. Even with gross total resection, the heterogeneity and the dormant nature of brain tumor initiating cells allow for therapeutic evasion, contributing to its recurrence and malignant progression, and severely impacting survival...
December 20, 2017: Brain Sciences
Lynn S Ashby, Kris A Smith, Baldassarre Stea
Since 2003, only two chemotherapeutic agents, evaluated in phase III trials, have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of newly diagnosed high-grade glioma (HGG): Gliadel wafers (intracranially implanted local chemotherapy) and temozolomide (TMZ) (systemic chemotherapy). Neither agent is curative, but each has been shown to improve median overall survival (OS) compared to radiotherapy (RT) alone. To date, no phase III trial has tested these agents when used in sequential combination; however, a number of smaller trials have reported favorable results...
August 24, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Isabele C Iser, Mariana B Pereira, Guido Lenz, Márcia R Wink
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive form of brain cancer due to its highly invasive nature that impedes the surgical removal of all tumor cells, making relapse inevitable. However, the mechanisms used by glioma cells to invade the surrounding tissue are still unclear. In this context, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has emerged as a key regulator of this invasive state and although the real relevance of this program in malignant glioma is still controversial, it has been strongly associated with GBM malignancy...
March 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
Patrick M Flanigan, Arman Jahangiri, Ruby Kuang, Albert Truong, Sarah Choi, Alvin Chou, Annette M Molinaro, Michael W McDermott, Mitchel S Berger, Manish K Aghi
BACKGROUND: Elderly patients with glioblastoma have an especially poor prognosis; optimizing their medical and surgical care remains of paramount importance. OBJECTIVE: To investigate patient and treatment characteristics of elderly vs nonelderly patients and develop an algorithm to predict elderly patients' survival. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 554 patients (mean age = 60.8; 42.0% female) undergoing first glioblastoma resection or biopsy at our institution (2005-2011)...
January 1, 2018: Neurosurgery
Robert S McNeill, Demitra A Canoutas, Timothy J Stuhlmiller, Harshil D Dhruv, David M Irvin, Ryan E Bash, Steven P Angus, Laura E Herring, Jeremy M Simon, Kasey R Skinner, Juanita C Limas, Xin Chen, Ralf S Schmid, Marni B Siegel, Amanda E D Van Swearingen, Michael J Hadler, Erik P Sulman, Jann N Sarkaria, Carey K Anders, Lee M Graves, Michael E Berens, Gary L Johnson, C Ryan Miller
Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor. Prognosis remains poor despite multimodal therapy. Developing alternative treatments is essential. Drugs targeting kinases within the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) effectors of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling represent promising candidates. Methods: We previously developed a non-germline genetically engineered mouse model of GBM in which PI3K and MAPK are activated via Pten deletion and KrasG12D in immortalized astrocytes...
October 19, 2017: Neuro-oncology
David W Roberts, Jonathan Olson
A 55-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a 1-week history of severe headache. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain with and without gadolinium-based contrast agent revealed a rim-enhancing mass (4.5 cm in diameter) in the right temporal lobe. At the time of surgery for tumor..
May 4, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
Satoru Osuka, Erwin G Van Meir
Glioblastoma is the most common and lethal primary malignant brain tumor in adults. Patients die from recurrent tumors that have become resistant to therapy. New strategies are needed to design future therapies that target resistant cells. Recent genomic studies have unveiled the complexity of tumor heterogeneity in glioblastoma and provide new insights into the genomic landscape of tumor cells that survive and initiate tumor recurrence. Resistant cells also co-opt developmental pathways and display stem-like properties; hence we propose to name them recurrence-initiating stem-like cancer (RISC) cells...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Howard A Fine
Glioblastoma is one of the deadliest human cancers. There have been few significant therapeutic advances in the field over the past two decades, with median survival of only about 15 months despite aggressive neurosurgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the past 5 years has seen an explosion in our understanding of the genetic and molecular underpinnings of these tumors, leading to renewed optimism about potential new therapeutic approaches. Several of the most promising new approaches include oncogenic signal transduction inhibition, angiogenesis inhibition, targeting canonical stem cell pathways in glioblastoma stem cells, and immunotherapy...
May 1, 2015: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2014: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
P W Grigsby, D M Garcia, J R Simpson, B B Fineberg, H G Schwartz
This report is a retrospective analysis of 83 adults (greater than 16 years of age) with histologically proven or presumed primary neoplasms of the thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, and medulla. Patients were treated with combined surgery and postoperative irradiation or with irradiation alone at the Washington University Medical Center (St. Louis, MO) from January 1950 through December 1984. Histologic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of tumor in 21, including nine with well-differentiated astrocytoma, four with astrocytoma with anaplasia, and eight with glioblastoma multiforme...
June 1, 1989: Cancer
S Nishio, T Morioka, S Suzuki, I Takeshita, M Fukui
Twenty patients (M 11, F9; ranging from 1-77 years old) with histologically proven glial tumours in the thalamic region, treated from 1979 until 1994 at Kyushu University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed and analysed in order to elucidate their clinical and neuropathological characteristics. The initial common clinical manifestations were those of increased intracranial pressure or motor weakness. The histological diagnosis of the tumour was pilocytic astrocytoma in 2 patients, fibrillary astrocytoma in 7, anaplastic astrocytoma in 7, and glioblastoma multiforme in 4...
1997: Acta Neurochirurgica
B Prakash
Fifteen cases of large thalamic gliomas were treated by laser surgery and CUSA under X8 magnification and subsequently they were subjected to radiotherapy. More than 50% of the tumours were located in the dominant hemisphere and therefore an interhemispheric approach was carried out to avoid disturbances of speech and field defects. Nine patients had astrocytomas grade II and the remaining six had astrocytomas grades III-IV. The quality and survival has been gratifying in the less malignant gliomas. The operative technique and use of Laser and CUSA is highlighted...
1985: Acta Neurochirurgica
H J Steiger, C Götz, R Schmid-Elsaesser, W Stummer
Deep-seated astrocytomas within the basal ganglia and the thalamus are considered unfavourable for microsurgical removal since the circumferential neighbourhood of critical structures limits radical resection. On closer assessment, the thalamus has a unique configuration within the basal ganglia. Its tetrahedric shape has 3 free surfaces and only the ventrolateral border is in contact with vital and critical functional structures, e.g. the subthalamic nuclei and the internal capsule. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of maximum microsurgical removal in a series of intrinsic thalamic astrocytomas...
2000: Acta Neurochirurgica
P W Grigsby, P R Thomas, H G Schwartz, B B Fineberg
A multivariate analysis of prognostic variables was performed on a retrospective review of 136 patients with presumed or histologically proven primary lesions of the thalamus and brainstem treated by combined surgery and post-operative irradiation or by irradiation alone from January 1950 through December 1983. Overall survival for all patients at 5 and 10 years was 34.4 and 27.8%, respectively. Follow-up of 33 living patients ranged from 3 to 22 years. Prognostic variables analyzed by univariate analysis and found to be of significance (p less than 0...
March 1989: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Carla Fernandez, André Maues de Paula, Carole Colin, Benoît Quilichini, Corinne Bouvier-Labit, Nadine Girard, Didier Scavarda, Gabriel Lena, Dominique Figarella-Branger
OBJECT: Thalamic tumors represent only 1 to 5% of brain neoplasms but frequently affect children. However, pediatric series are rare and go back to several years in spite of recent advances in the neuroradiological, pathological, and molecular fields. METHODS: We report a series of 14 pediatric thalamic gliomas with clinical, neuroradiological, and pathological studies including p53 immunostaining in 11 cases and 1p19q status in three cases. RESULTS: Our series included five pilocytic astrocytomas, seven oligodendrogliomas, and two glioblastomas...
December 2006: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Koki Aihara, Akitake Mukasa, Kengo Gotoh, Kuniaki Saito, Genta Nagae, Shingo Tsuji, Kenji Tatsuno, Shogo Yamamoto, Shunsaku Takayanagi, Yoshitaka Narita, Soichiro Shibui, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Nobuhito Saito
INTRODUCTION: Mutations in H3F3A, which encodes histone H3.3, commonly occur in pediatric glioblastoma. Additionally, H3F3A K27M substitutions occur in gliomas that arise at midline locations (eg, pons, thalamus, spine); moreover, this substitution occurs mainly in tumors in children and adolescents. Here, we sought to determine the association between H3F3A mutations and adult thalamic glioma. METHODS: Genomic H3F3A was sequenced from 20 separate thalamic gliomas...
January 2014: Neuro-oncology
David N Louis, Arie Perry, Guido Reifenberger, Andreas von Deimling, Dominique Figarella-Branger, Webster K Cavenee, Hiroko Ohgaki, Otmar D Wiestler, Paul Kleihues, David W Ellison
The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System is both a conceptual and practical advance over its 2007 predecessor. For the first time, the WHO classification of CNS tumors uses molecular parameters in addition to histology to define many tumor entities, thus formulating a concept for how CNS tumor diagnoses should be structured in the molecular era. As such, the 2016 CNS WHO presents major restructuring of the diffuse gliomas, medulloblastomas and other embryonal tumors, and incorporates new entities that are defined by both histology and molecular features, including glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype and glioblastoma, IDH-mutant; diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant; RELA fusion-positive ependymoma; medulloblastoma, WNT-activated and medulloblastoma, SHH-activated; and embryonal tumour with multilayered rosettes, C19MC-altered...
June 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Katharina Seystahl, Wolfgang Wick, Michael Weller
INTRODUCTION: Standards of care are not yet defined in recurrent glioblastoma. METHODS: We reviewed the literature on clinical trials for recurrent glioblastoma available in PubMed and American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) abstracts until June 2015. RESULTS: Evidence is limited due to the paucity of randomized controlled studies. Second surgery or re-irradiation are options for selected patients. Alkylating chemotherapy such as nitrosoureas or temozolomide and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody, bevacizumab, exhibit comparable single agent activity...
March 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Naiyer A Rizvi, Timothy A Chan
Peng and colleagues describe the effects of PTEN inactivation on antitumor immunity and response to immune checkpoint blockade in melanoma. These results shed light on the intricate interplay between oncogenic pathways and antitumor immune response.
February 2016: Cancer Discovery
Neža Podergajs, Helena Motaln, Uroš Rajčević, Urška Verbovšek, Marjan Koršič, Nina Obad, Heidi Espedal, Miloš Vittori, Christel Herold-Mende, Hrvoje Miletic, Rolf Bjerkvig, Tamara Lah Turnšek
The cancer stem cell model suggests that glioblastomas contain a subpopulation of stem-like tumor cells that reproduce themselves to sustain tumor growth. Targeting these cells thus represents a novel treatment strategy and therefore more specific markers that characterize glioblastoma stem cells need to be identified. In the present study, we performed transcriptomic analysis of glioblastoma tissues compared to normal brain tissues revealing sensible up-regulation of CD9 gene. CD9 encodes the transmembrane protein tetraspanin which is involved in tumor cell invasion, apoptosis and resistance to chemotherapy...
January 5, 2016: Oncotarget
2016-01-04 04:28:11
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