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Rebecca E Berger, Emanuel Rivers, Mitchell M Levy
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 376, Issue 23, Page 2282-2285, June 2017.
June 8, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
I Kelleher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Mary C Zanarini, Frances R Frankenburg, D Bradford Reich, Garrett M Fitzmaurice
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the cumulative rates of 2- and 4-year remission, and the recurrences that follow them, of 24 symptoms of borderline personality disorder over 16 years of prospective follow-up. METHOD: A total of 290 inpatients meeting rigorous criteria for borderline personality disorder and 72 axis II comparison subjects were assessed during their index admission using a series of semistructured diagnostic interviews. The same instruments were readministered at eight contiguous 2-year time periods...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Britta Haenisch, Klaus von Holt, Birgitt Wiese, Jana Prokein, Carolin Lange, Annette Ernst, Christian Brettschneider, Hans-Helmut König, Jochen Werle, Siegfried Weyerer, Melanie Luppa, Steffi G Riedel-Heller, Angela Fuchs, Michael Pentzek, Dagmar Weeg, Horst Bickel, Karl Broich, Frank Jessen, Wolfgang Maier, Martin Scherer
Drugs that modify the risk of dementia in the elderly are of potential interest for dementia prevention. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used to reduce gastric acid production, but information on the risk of dementia is lacking. We assessed association between the use of PPIs and the risk of dementia in elderly people. Data were derived from a longitudinal, multicenter cohort study in elderly primary care patients, the German Study on Aging, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe), including 3,327 community-dwelling persons aged ≥ 75 years...
August 2015: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Darren Hedley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Myrto T Samara, Markus Dold, Myrsini Gianatsi, Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Bartosz Helfer, Georgia Salanti, Stefan Leucht
IMPORTANCE: In treatment-resistant schizophrenia, clozapine is considered the standard treatment. However, clozapine use has restrictions owing to its many adverse effects. Moreover, an increasing number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of other antipsychotics have been published. OBJECTIVE: To integrate all the randomized evidence from the available antipsychotics used for treatment-resistant schizophrenia by performing a network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, PsycINFO, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, World Health Organization International Trial Registry, and clinicaltrials...
March 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Nora D Volkow, James M Swanson, A Eden Evins, Lynn E DeLisi, Madeline H Meier, Raul Gonzalez, Michael A P Bloomfield, H Valerie Curran, Ruben Baler
With a political debate about the potential risks and benefits of cannabis use as a backdrop, the wave of legalization and liberalization initiatives continues to spread. Four states (Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska) and the District of Columbia have passed laws that legalized cannabis for recreational use by adults, and 23 others plus the District of Columbia now regulate cannabis use for medical purposes. These policy changes could trigger a broad range of unintended consequences, with profound and lasting implications for the health and social systems in our country...
March 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Donald R Royall, Ram J Bishnoi, Raymond F Palmer
We have used structural equation models to explicitly distinguish functional status and therefore "dementia-relevant" variance in cognitive task performance (i.e., "δ" for dementia). Our approach is modular and can be directed to other targets. In this analysis, we construct a δ ortholog representing the "cognitive correlates of age" (cAGE). cAGE largely mediates age's effects on dementia severity, as rated by the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Sum of boxes and has an area under the receiver operating curve = 0...
July 2015: Neurobiology of Aging
(no author information available yet)
The 2015 American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Beers Criteria are presented. Like the 2012 AGS Beers Criteria, they include lists of potentially inappropriate medications to be avoided in older adults. New to the criteria are lists of select drugs that should be avoided or have their dose adjusted based on the individual's kidney function and select drug-drug interactions documented to be associated with harms in older adults. The specific aim was to have a 13-member interdisciplinary panel of experts in geriatric care and pharmacotherapy update the 2012 AGS Beers Criteria using a modified Delphi method to systematically review and grade the evidence and reach a consensus on each existing and new criterion...
November 2015: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Michael Maes, Raz Yirmyia, Jens Noraberg, Stefan Brene, Joe Hibbeln, Giulia Perini, Marta Kubera, Petr Bob, Bernard Lerer, Mario Maj
Despite extensive research, the current theories on serotonergic dysfunctions and cortisol hypersecretion do not provide sufficient explanations for the nature of depression. Rational treatments aimed at causal factors of depression are not available yet. With the currently available antidepressant drugs, which mainly target serotonin, less than two thirds of depressed patients achieve remission. There is now evidence that inflammatory and neurodegenerative (I&ND) processes play an important role in depression and that enhanced neurodegeneration in depression may-at least partly-be caused by inflammatory processes...
March 2009: Metabolic Brain Disease
Michael Maes
This paper hypothesizes that inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative (IO&NS) pathways, and an increased translocation of LPS from gram-negative bacteria are causally related to depression following external (psychological) and internal (organic) stressors and that IO&NS pathways are novel targets for antidepressant development. We review that depression is accompanied by an inflammatory reaction as indicated by an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN)-gamma...
June 2008: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
R Garcia, J Gutkowska, M Cantin, G Thibault
Conscious two-kidney, one clip rats with 150 mm Hg or higher systolic blood pressure were infused with saralasin for 60 minutes. Those with a blood pressure decline of 30 mm Hg or more were classified as saralasin-sensitive; those with a decrease of 10 mm Hg or less were considered saralasin-resistant. The animals were then housed in metabolic cages. Groups of sham-operated normotensive, saralasin-sensitive or saralasin-resistant two-kidney, one clip (2K1C) rats were infused with atrial natriuretic factor (Arg 101-Tyr 126), 100 ng/hr per rat, for 6 days...
January 1987: Hypertension
P Wiesel, L Mazzolai, J Nussberger, T Pedrazzini
The mouse remains the animal of choice in transgenic experiments, creating a need for methods of evaluating the physiology of genetically modified animals. We have established and characterized two murine models of renovascular hypertension known as the two-kidney, one clip and one-kidney, one clip models. The appropriate size of the clip lumen needed to induce high blood pressure was determined to be 0.12 mm. Clips with a lumen of 0.11 mm induced a high percentage of renal infarction, and clips with a 0.13-mm opening did not produce hypertension...
April 1997: Hypertension
Steven Fishbane
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a common clinical problem that is growing in importance as an increasing number of tests and procedures that utilize contrast media are performed. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND MEASUREMENTS: The biological and pharmacological properties of n-acetylcysteine (NAC) are reviewed, as well as the current literature relevant to the ability of NAC to prevent CIN. RESULTS: After publication of a seminal study by Tepel et al...
January 2008: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Maria C Abay, Janet Delos Reyes, Katheryn Everts, Jessica Wisser
Dopamine use in acute renal failure (ARF) patients has been considered standard practice for many years. Despite this widely accepted practice, there has been limited evidence to support its usage. Low-dose dopamine has been accepted because it is considered to pose minimal risk to the patient. Dopamine infused at low doses is thought to be specific to dopaminergic receptors. However its results are often unpredictable and can lead to several alpha and beta induced side effects. With advances in technology there is another option that may be superior in the prevention and treatment of acute renal failure...
February 2007: AANA Journal
Mahboob Rahman, Charles E Ford, Jeffrey A Cutler, Barry R Davis, Linda B Piller, Paul K Whelton, Jackson T Wright, Joshua I Barzilay, Clinton D Brown, Pedro J Colon, Lawrence J Fine, Richard H Grimm, Alok K Gupta, Charles Baimbridge, L Julian Haywood, Mario A Henriquez, Ekambaram Ilamaythi, Suzanne Oparil, Richard Preston
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: CKD is common among older patients. This article assesses long-term renal and cardiovascular outcomes in older high-risk hypertensive patients, stratified by baseline estimated GFR (eGFR), and long-term outcome efficacy of 5-year first-step treatment with amlodipine or lisinopril, each compared with chlorthalidone. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This was a long-term post-trial follow-up of hypertensive participants (n=31,350), aged ≥55 years, randomized to receive chlorthalidone, amlodipine, or lisinopril for 4-8 years at 593 centers...
June 2012: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
(no author information available yet)
CONTEXT: Antihypertensive therapy is well established to reduce hypertension-related morbidity and mortality, but the optimal first-step therapy is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether treatment with a calcium channel blocker or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lowers the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) or other cardiovascular disease (CVD) events vs treatment with a diuretic. DESIGN: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT), a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial conducted from February 1994 through March 2002...
December 18, 2002: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Keith Norris, Jacque Bourgoigne, Jennifer Gassman, Lee Hebert, John Middleton, Robert A Phillips, Otelio Randall, Stephen Rostand, Susan Sherer, Robert D Toto, Jackson T Wright, Xuelei Wang, Tom Greene, Lawrence J Appel, Julia Lewis
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease are at increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1,094 African Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis (glomerular filtration rate [GFR], 20 to 65 mL/min/1.73 m(2) [0.33 to 1.08 mL/s]) to initial antihypertensive treatment with either: (1) a beta-blocker, metoprolol; (2) an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ramipril; or (3) a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, and either a usual-blood pressure (BP) or low-BP treatment goal...
November 2006: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
L Y Agodoa, L Appel, G L Bakris, G Beck, J Bourgoignie, J P Briggs, J Charleston, D Cheek, W Cleveland, J G Douglas, M Douglas, D Dowie, M Faulkner, A Gabriel, J Gassman, T Greene, Y Hall, L Hebert, L Hiremath, K Jamerson, C J Johnson, J Kopple, J Kusek, J Lash, J Lea, J B Lewis, M Lipkowitz, S Massry, J Middleton, E R Miller, K Norris, D O'Connor, A Ojo, R A Phillips, V Pogue, M Rahman, O S Randall, S Rostand, G Schulman, W Smith, D Thornley-Brown, C C Tisher, R D Toto, J T Wright, S Xu
CONTEXT: Incidence of end-stage renal disease due to hypertension has increased in recent decades, but the optimal strategy for treatment of hypertension to prevent renal failure is unknown, especially among African Americans. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (ramipril), a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (amlodipine), and a beta-blocker (metoprolol) on hypertensive renal disease progression. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Interim analysis of a randomized, double-blind, 3 x 2 factorial trial conducted in 1094 African Americans aged 18 to 70 years with hypertensive renal disease (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] of 20-65 mL/min per 1...
June 6, 2001: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
R A Rodby, R D Rohde, W R Clarke, L G Hunsicker, D A Anzalone, R C Atkins, E Ritz, E J Lewis
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in the developed world. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been demonstrated to be renoprotective in type I diabetes and are now the standard of care for both hypertensive and non-hypertensive type I diabetic patients with any level of proteinuria. The role of blockade of the renin-angiotensin system in type II diabetic patients is not defined. The Collaborative Study Group has initiated the Irbesartan Type II Diabetic Nephropathy Trial (IDNT), studying the effect of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist irbesartan on progression of renal disease and mortality in type II diabetic patients with overt nephropathy and hypertension...
April 2000: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
2015-08-03 21:12:09
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