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Bill Giannakopoulos, Steven A Krilis
This article discusses how we approach medical decision making in the treatment of the various facets of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), including secondary prophylaxis in the setting of venous and arterial thrombosis, as well as treatment for the prevention of recurrent miscarriages and fetal death. The role of primary thromboprophylaxis is also discussed in depth. Great emphasis is given to incorporating the most up-to-date and relevant evidence base both from the APS literature, and from large, recent, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of primary and secondary thrombotic prophylaxis in the general population setting (ie, the population that has not been specifically investigated for APS)...
September 3, 2009: Blood
Pier Luigi Meroni, Cecilia Beatrice Chighizola, Francesca Rovelli, Maria Gerosa
The clinical spectrum of the anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) is not limited to vascular thrombosis or miscarriages but includes additional manifestations that cannot be explained solely by a thrombophilic state. Anti-cardiolipin, anti-beta₂ glycoprotein I (anti-β₂GPI) and lupus anticoagulant (LA) assays are not only the formal diagnostic and classification laboratory tools but also parameters to stratify the risk to develop the clinical manifestations of the syndrome. In particular, anti-β₂GPI antibodies reacting with an immunodominant epitope on domain I of the molecule were reported as the prevalent specificity in APS patients, correlating with a more aggressive clinical picture...
2014: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Ng Hong-Kee, Chong Mei-Fong, Yaakub Azhany, Embong Zunaina
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem, autoimmune disease that can affect any part of the human body including the eyes. Common blinding ocular manifestations include central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), severe vaso-occlusive retinopathy, and optic nerve involvement. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in lupus is usually associated with large vessel occlusions and needs prompt treatment with anticoagulant. We are reporting two cases of APS in SLE patients that presented with CRVO (case 1) and vaso-occlusive lupus retinopathy (case 2)...
2014: Clinical Ophthalmology
Ignasi Rodríguez-Pintó, Ricard Cervera, Gerard Espinosa
The catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) is characterized by thrombosis in more than three organs or systems developing over a short period of time. Despite conventional treatment with a combination of anticoagulation plus corticosteroids plus plasma exchange, and/or intravenous immunoglobulin, mortality remains high and some patients suffer from recurrent CAPS episodes. In selected patients, new therapies such as rituximab may be a treatment option. In this review, the rationale for using rituximab in CAPS is discussed...
February 2015: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
E Schuit, S Stock, L Rode, D J Rouse, A C Lim, J E Norman, A H Nassar, V Serra, C A Combs, C Vayssiere, M M Aboulghar, S Wood, E Çetingöz, C M Briery, E B Fonseca, K Worda, A Tabor, E A Thom, S N Caritis, J Awwad, I M Usta, A Perales, J Meseguer, K Maurel, T Garite, M A Aboulghar, Y M Amin, S Ross, C Cam, A Karateke, J C Morrison, E F Magann, K H Nicolaides, N P A Zuithoff, R H H Groenwold, K G M Moons, A Kwee, B W J Mol
BACKGROUND: In twin pregnancies, the rates of adverse perinatal outcome and subsequent long-term morbidity are substantial, and mainly result from preterm birth (PTB). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of progestogen treatment in the prevention of neonatal morbidity or PTB in twin pregnancies using individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA). SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched international scientific databases, trial registration websites, and references of identified articles...
January 2015: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Roberto Romero, Lami Yeo, Piya Chaemsaithong, Tinnakorn Chaiworapongsa, Sonia S Hassan
Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and its prevention is an important healthcare priority. Preterm parturition is one of the 'great obstetrical syndromes' and is caused by multiple etiologies. One of the mechanisms of disease is the untimely decline in progesterone action, which can present as a clinically silent sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester. The detection of a short cervix in the midtrimester is a powerful risk factor for preterm delivery. Vaginal progesterone can reduce the rate of preterm delivery by 45% and the rate of neonatal morbidity (admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, respiratory distress syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation, etc...
February 2014: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Melanie A van Os, A Jeanine van der Ven, C Emily Kleinrouweler, Ewoud Schuit, Brenda M Kazemier, Corine J Verhoeven, Esteriek de Miranda, Aleid G van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, J Marko Sikkema, Mallory D Woiski, Patrick M Bossuyt, Eva Pajkrt, Christianne J M de Groot, Ben Willem J Mol, Monique C Haak
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of vaginal progesterone in reducing adverse neonatal outcome due to preterm birth (PTB) in low-risk pregnant women with a short cervical length (CL). STUDY DESIGN: Women with a singleton pregnancy without a history of PTB underwent CL measurement at 18 to 22 weeks. Women with a CL ≤ 30 mm received vaginal progesterone or placebo. Primary outcome was adverse neonatal outcome, defined as a composite of respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intracerebral hemorrhage > grade II, necrotizing enterocolitis > stage 1, proven sepsis, or death before discharge...
August 2015: American Journal of Perinatology
G Justus Hofmeyr, Theresa A Lawrie, Alvaro N Atallah, Lelia Duley, Maria R Torloni
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are common causes of serious morbidity and death. Calcium supplementation may reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia, and may help to prevent preterm birth. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and related maternal and child outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 March 2013) and contacted study authors for more data where possible...
June 24, 2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Michael L LeFevre
DESCRIPTION: Update of the 1996 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on aspirin prophylaxis in pregnancy. METHODS: The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of low-dose aspirin in preventing preeclampsia in women at increased risk and in decreasing adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes, and assessed the maternal and fetal harms of low-dose aspirin during pregnancy. POPULATION: This recommendation applies to asymptomatic pregnant women who are at increased risk for preeclampsia and who have no prior adverse effects with or contraindications to low-dose aspirin...
December 2, 2014: Annals of Internal Medicine
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