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Nuclear Terrorism

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By Jerome Hauer Disaster medicine, chemical biological and nuclear terrorism and medical care.
Vijay K Singh, Patricia L P Romaine, Thomas M Seed
World events over the past decade have highlighted the threat of nuclear terrorism as well as an urgent need to develop radiation countermeasures for acute radiation exposures and subsequent bodily injuries. An increased probability of radiological or nuclear incidents due to detonation of nuclear weapons by terrorists, sabotage of nuclear facilities, dispersal and exposure to radioactive materials, and accidents provides the basis for such enhanced radiation exposure risks for civilian populations. Although the search for suitable radiation countermeasures for radiation-associated injuries was initiated more than half a century ago, no safe and effective radiation countermeasure for the most severe of these injuries, namely acute radiation syndrome (ARS), has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...
June 2015: Health Physics
Daniel J Blumenthal, Judith L Bader, Doran Christensen, John Koerner, John Cuellar, Sidney Hinds, John Crapo, Erik Glassman, A Bradley Potter, Lynda Singletary
The detonation of a nuclear device in a US city would be catastrophic. Enormous loss of life and injuries would characterize an incident with profound human, political, social, and economic implications. Nevertheless, most responders have not received sufficient training about ionizing radiation, principles of radiation safety, or managing, diagnosing, and treating radiation-related injuries and illnesses. Members throughout the health care delivery system, including medical first responders, hospital first receivers, and health care institution support personnel such as janitors, hospital administrators, and security personnel, lack radiation-related training...
February 2014: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Yong Zhang, Matthew P Sadgrove, Russell J Mumper, Michael Jay
The threat of nuclear terrorism by the deliberate detonation of a nuclear weapon or radiological dispersion device ("dirty bomb") has made emergency response planning a priority. The only FDA-approved treatments for contamination with isotopes of the transuranic elements Am, Pu, and Cm are the Ca and Zn salts of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). These injectable products are not well suited for use in a mass contamination scenario as they require skilled professionals for their administration and are rapidly cleared from the circulation...
October 2013: AAPS Journal
Vijay K Singh, Lindsay A Beattie, Thomas M Seed
Despite the potential devastating health consequences of intense total-body irradiation, and the decades of research, there still remains a dearth of safe and effective radiation countermeasures for emergency, radiological/nuclear contingencies that have been fully approved and sanctioned for use by the US FDA. Vitamin E is a well-known antioxidant, effective in scavenging free radicals generated by radiation exposure. Vitamin E analogs, collectively known as tocols, have been subject to active investigation for a long time as radioprotectors in patients undergoing radiotherapy and in the context of possible radiation accidents or terrorism scenarios...
November 1, 2013: Journal of Radiation Research
John R Lumpkin, Yoon K Miller, Tom Inglesby, Jonathan M Links, Angela T Schwartz, Catherine C Slemp, Robert L Burhans, James Blumenstock, Ali S Khan
Natural disasters, infectious disease epidemics, terrorism, and major events like the nuclear incident at Fukushima all pose major potential challenges to public health and security. Events such as the anthrax letters of 2001, Hurricanes Katrina, Irene, and Sandy, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and West Nile virus outbreaks, and the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic have demonstrated that public health, emergency management, and national security efforts are interconnected. These and other events have increased the national resolve and the resources committed to improving the national health security infrastructure...
March 2013: Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science
Tara Kirk Sell, Crystal Franco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2012: Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science
Anat Gonen, Limor Aharonson-Daniel
"RadioLogical events" are the general term used to describe various scenarios that involve radiological and nuclear mishaps. These may occur in different settings such as in a nuclear plant, during transportation of isotopes, in a medical or industrial venue, as a result of an accident, natural disaster or as a means of terror or war. Radiological events carry dire medical consequences and are therefore of great concern to both the public and the authorities. The recent disaster in Japan brought the issue of the safety of nuclear pLants to the civil populations residing around them to the public eye once again...
February 2012: Harefuah
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