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Psychiatric physiopathology

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21 papers 0 to 25 followers
By Masoud Ahmadzad-Asl Assistant professor of psychiatry, Iran university of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran.
S Guloksuz, J van Os
The concept of schizophrenia only covers the 30% poor outcome fraction of a much broader multidimensional psychotic syndrome, yet paradoxically has become the dominant prism through which everything 'psychotic' is observed, even affective states with mild psychosis labelled 'ultra-high risk' (for schizophrenia). The inability of psychiatry to frame psychosis as multidimensional syndromal variation of largely unpredictable course and outcome - within and between individuals - hampers research and recovery-oriented practice...
January 2018: Psychological Medicine
D Curtis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Psychological Medicine
Marta Peciña, Amy S B Bohnert, Magdalena Sikora, Erich T Avery, Scott A Langenecker, Brian J Mickey, Jon-Kar Zubieta
IMPORTANCE: High placebo responses have been observed across a wide range of pathologies, severely impacting drug development. OBJECTIVE: To examine neurochemical mechanisms underlying the formation of placebo effects in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this study involving 2 placebo lead-in phases followed by an open antidepressant administration, we performed a single-blinded 2-week crossover randomized clinical trial of 2 identical oral placebos (described as having either active or inactive fast-acting antidepressant-like effects) followed by a 10-week open-label treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or, in some cases, another agent as clinically indicated...
November 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
Aran Tajika, Yusuke Ogawa, Nozomi Takeshima, Yu Hayasaka, Toshi A Furukawa
BACKGROUND: Contradictions and initial overestimates are not unusual among highly cited studies. However, this issue has not been researched in psychiatry. Aims: To assess how highly cited studies in psychiatry are replicated by subsequent studies. METHOD: We selected highly cited studies claiming effective psychiatric treatments in the years 2000 through 2002. For each of these studies we searched for subsequent studies with a better-controlled design, or with a similar design but a larger sample...
October 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Manabu Kubota, Neeltje E M van Haren, Sander V Haijma, Hugo G Schnack, Wiepke Cahn, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, René S Kahn
IMPORTANCE: Although schizophrenia is characterized by impairments in intelligence and the loss of brain volume, the relationship between changes in IQ and brain measures is not clear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between IQ and brain measures in patients with schizophrenia across time. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Case-control longitudinal study at the Department of Psychiatry at the University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands, comparing patients with schizophrenia and healthy control participants between September 22, 2004, and April 17, 2008...
August 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
Wenjing Zhang, Wei Deng, Li Yao, Yuan Xiao, Fei Li, Jieke Liu, John A Sweeney, Su Lui, Qiyong Gong
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated brain morphometry in chronically ill but never-medicated schizophrenia patients and whether the relation of age to morphometric abnormalities differed from that in healthy subjects. METHOD: In a cross-sectional design, high-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 25 schizophrenia patients with untreated chronic illness lasting 5 to 47 years and 33 matched healthy comparison subjects. Cortical thickness and gray matter volume were compared in the two groups...
October 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
Charles A Nelson, Kandice J Varcin, Nicole K Coman, Immaculata De Vivo, Helen Tager-Flusberg
OBJECTIVE: Shortened telomeres have been linked to poorer health outcomes. Exposure to psychological stress is associated with accelerated telomere shortening, and a well-established body of evidence indicates that families with a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience heightened levels of psychological stress. Also, alterations in a number of biological processes implicated in telomere length dynamics (i.e., oxidative stress, DNA methylation) have been linked to ASD susceptibility...
July 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Dominic T Plant, Carmine M Pariante, Deborah Sharp, Susan Pawlby
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that maternal depression during pregnancy predicts offspring depression in adolescence. Child maltreatment is also a risk factor for depression. AIMS: To investigate (a) whether there is an association between offspring exposure to maternal depression in pregnancy and depression in early adulthood, and (b) whether offspring child maltreatment mediates this association. METHOD: Prospectively collected data on maternal clinical depression in pregnancy, offspring child maltreatment and offspring adulthood (18-25 years) DSM-IV depression were analysed in 103 mother-offspring dyads of the South London Child Development Study...
September 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Graham J Emslie, Thomas G Wells, Apurva Prakash, Qi Zhang, Beth A Pangallo, Mark E Bangs, John S March
OBJECTIVE: To assess acute and longer-term safety of duloxetine in the treatment of children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD), a pooled analysis of data from two completed randomized, double-blind, multicenter, phase 3, placebo- and active-controlled trials was undertaken. In these studies, neither duloxetine (investigational drug) nor fluoxetine (active control) demonstrated a statistically significant improvement compared with placebo on the primary efficacy measure...
May 2015: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Kenneth S Kendler, Sara Larsson Lönn, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to clarify the causes of the smoking-schizophrenia association. METHOD: Using Cox proportional hazard and co-relative control models, the authors predicted future risk for a diagnosis of schizophrenia or nonaffective psychosis from the smoking status of 1,413,849 women and 233,879 men from, respectively, the Swedish birth and conscript registries. RESULTS: Smoking was assessed in women at a mean age of 27 and in men at a mean age of 18...
November 1, 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
John J McGrath, Sukanta Saha, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Jordi Alonso, Evelyn J Bromet, Ronny Bruffaerts, José Miguel Caldas-de-Almeida, Wai Tat Chiu, Peter de Jonge, John Fayyad, Silvia Florescu, Oye Gureje, Josep Maria Haro, Chiyi Hu, Viviane Kovess-Masfety, Jean Pierre Lepine, Carmen C W Lim, Maria Elena Medina Mora, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Susana Ochoa, Nancy Sampson, Kate Scott, Maria Carmen Viana, Ronald C Kessler
IMPORTANCE: Community-based surveys find that many otherwise healthy individuals report histories of hallucinations and delusions. To date, most studies have focused on the overall lifetime prevalence of any of these psychotic experiences (PEs), which might mask important features related to the types and frequencies of PEs. OBJECTIVE: To explore detailed epidemiologic information about PEs in a large multinational sample. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We obtained data from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys, a coordinated set of community epidemiologic surveys of the prevalence and correlates of mental disorders in representative household samples from 18 countries throughout the world, from 2001 through 2009...
July 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
A Thompson, S T Lereya, G Lewis, S Zammit, H L Fisher, D Wolke
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances are commonly reported in the psychosis prodrome, but rarely explored in relation to psychotic experiences. AIMS: To investigate the relationship between specific parasomnias (nightmares, night terrors and sleepwalking) in childhood and later adolescent psychotic experiences. METHOD: The sample comprised 4720 individuals from a UK birth cohort. Mothers reported on children's experience of regular nightmares at several time points between 2 and 9 years...
July 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Vandad Sharifi, William W Eaton, Li Tzy Wu, Kimberly B Roth, Bruce M Burchett, Ramin Mojtabai
BACKGROUND: Psychotic experiences are common in the general population and are associated with adverse psychiatric and social outcomes, even in the absence of a psychotic disorder. AIMS: To examine the association between psychotic experiences and mortality over a 24-27 year period. METHOD: We used data on 15 049 adult participants from four sites of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area baseline survey in the USA in the early 1980s, linked to the National Death Index and other sources of vital status up until 2007...
July 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Leonardo F Fontenelle, Evandro S F Coutinho, Natália M Lins-Martins, Paul B Fitzgerald, Hironobo Fujiwara, Murat Yücel
OBJECTIVE: Surgical therapies for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), such as deep brain stimulation or psychosurgery, remain unattainable for many patients. Despite the long-held view that electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an ineffective treatment for OCD, there is no systematic review to support or refute this claim, which is the basis of the current review. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and LILACS databases was conducted on December 22, 2013, using the terms obsessive-compulsive disorder and electroconvulsive therapy...
July 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Junko Matsuo, Yoko Kamio, Hidetoshi Takahashi, Miho Ota, Toshiya Teraishi, Hiroaki Hori, Anna Nagashima, Reiko Takei, Teruhiko Higuchi, Nobutaka Motohashi, Hiroshi Kunugi
Autism spectrum disorder often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Although a high prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms has been identified in the pediatric psychiatric population of normal intelligence, there are no reports from adult psychiatric population. This study examined whether there is a greater prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms in patients with adult-onset psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and whether such an association is independent of symptom severity...
2015: PloS One
Amy E Pinkham, Peiying Liu, Hanzhang Lu, Michael Kriegsman, Claire Simpson, Carol Tamminga
OBJECTIVE: The amygdala's role in threat perception suggests that increased activation of this region may be related to paranoid ideation. However, investigations of amygdala function in paranoid individuals with schizophrenia, compared with both healthy individuals and nonparanoid individuals with schizophrenia, have consistently reported reduced task-related activation. The reliance of blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional MRI on a contrast between events and baseline, and the inability to quantitatively measure this baseline, may account for these counterintuitive findings...
August 1, 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
Melissa Gill, MacDara McCauley
Water intoxication is a rare condition characterised by overconsumption of water. It can occur in athletes engaging in endurance sports, users of MDMA (ecstasy), and patients receiving total parenteral nutrition. This case outlines water intoxication in a patient with psychogenic polydipsia. When the kidney's capacity to compensate for exaggerated water intake is exceeded, hypotonic hyperhydration results. Consequences can involve headaches, behavioural changes, muscular weakness, twitching, vomiting, confusion, irritability, drowsiness, and seizures...
2015: Case Reports in Psychiatry
Shelly L Gray, Melissa L Anderson, Sascha Dublin, Joseph T Hanlon, Rebecca Hubbard, Rod Walker, Onchee Yu, Paul K Crane, Eric B Larson
IMPORTANCE: Many medications have anticholinergic effects. In general, anticholinergic-induced cognitive impairment is considered reversible on discontinuation of anticholinergic therapy. However, a few studies suggest that anticholinergics may be associated with an increased risk for dementia. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether cumulative anticholinergic use is associated with a higher risk for incident dementia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective population-based cohort study using data from the Adult Changes in Thought study in Group Health, an integrated health care delivery system in Seattle, Washington...
March 2015: JAMA Internal Medicine
Vaios Peritogiannis, Thiresia Manthopoulou, Venetsanos Mavreas
We present a case of a middle-aged male patient with a long history of conversion disorder and histrionic personality, who presented with newly onset psychotic symptoms while being engaged to treatment with a community mental health team in a primary care setting. The symptoms could not be attributed to an organic cause. After a short course of olanzapine treatment which caused adverse effects, the symptomatology responded well to low dose amisulpride. Conversion symptoms were stable throughout the psychotic episode...
2014: Case Reports in Psychiatry
J Stochl, G M Khandaker, G Lewis, J Perez, I M Goodyer, S Zammit, S Sullivan, T J Croudace, P B Jones
BACKGROUND: Psychotic phenomena are common in the general population but are excluded from diagnostic criteria for mild to moderate depression and anxiety despite their co-occurrence and shared risk factors. We used item response theory modelling to examine whether the co-occurrence of depressive, anxiety and psychotic phenomena is best explained by: (1) a single underlying factor; (2) two separate, uncorrelated factors; (3) two separate yet linked factors; or (4) two separate domains along with an underlying 'common mental distress' (CMD) factor...
May 2015: Psychological Medicine
2015-04-26 12:41:24
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