collection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36401591/clinical-management-of-psychostimulant-withdrawal-review-of-the-evidence
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Michael J Li, Steven J Shoptaw
It is estimated that a majority of people who use psychostimulants, particularly methamphetamine (MA) and cocaine, experience withdrawal upon abstinence from sustained use. This review of clinical research reports the evidence regarding biomedical and behavioral treatments for psychostimulant withdrawal symptoms. It provides a framework for clinicians and scientists to increase impact on attenuating MA and cocaine withdrawal during initial and sustained abstinence. Articles reviewed included reports of controlled clinical trials (randomized or non-randomized) reporting at least one withdrawal symptom among the outcomes or specifically studying patients in withdrawal...
November 19, 2022: Addiction
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36375394/lc-ms-ms-determination-of-gts-201-a-dipeptide-mimetic-of-the-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-neurotransmitter-metabolites-with-application-to-a-pharmacokinetic-study-in-rats
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Pavel A Markin, Natalia E Moskaleva, Svetlana A Lebedeva, Sergey V Kozin, Ekaterina M Grigorevskikh, Larisa G Kolik, Tatyana A Gudasheva, Svetlana A Appolonova
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family with diverse psychopharmacological effects including antidepressant and anxiolytic actions. However, the clinical use of BDNF is limited due to its poor pharmacokinetic properties. The development of low-molecular-weight BDNF mimetics passing through the blood-brain barrier is an emerging strategy for improved managing psychiatric diseases. The present study characterizes a novel dipeptide mimetic of the 2nd BDNF loop named GTS-201, which exhibits psychotropic properties in experimental animal models of anxiety and alcohol dependence...
October 28, 2022: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://read.qxmd.com/read/35552683/novel-noninvasive-approaches-to-the-treatment-of-obesity-from-pharmacotherapy-to-gene-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Angeliki M Angelidi, Matthew J Belanger, Alexander Kokkinos, Chrysi C Koliaki, Christos S Mantzoros
Recent insights into the pathophysiologic underlying mechanisms of obesity have led to the discovery of several promising drug targets and novel therapeutic strategies to address the global obesity epidemic and its comorbidities. Current pharmacologic options for obesity management are largely limited in number and of modest efficacy/safety profile. Therefore, the need for safe and more efficacious new agents is urgent. Drugs that are currently under investigation modulate targets across a broad range of systems and tissues, including the central nervous system, gastrointestinal hormones, adipose tissue, kidney, liver, and skeletal muscle...
May 12, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27670390/allostatic-mechanisms-of-opioid-tolerance-beyond-desensitization-and-downregulation
#4
REVIEW
Catherine M Cahill, Wendy Walwyn, Anna M W Taylor, Amynah A A Pradhan, Christopher J Evans
Mechanisms of opioid tolerance have focused on adaptive modifications within cells containing opioid receptors, defined here as cellular allostasis, emphasizing regulation of the opioid receptor signalosome. We review additional regulatory and opponent processes involved in behavioral tolerance, and include mechanistic differences both between agonists (agonist bias), and between μ- and δ-opioid receptors. In a process we will refer to as pass-forward allostasis, cells modified directly by opioid drugs impute allostatic changes to downstream circuitry...
November 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29995356/adjunctive-use-of-a-standardized-extract-of-withania-somnifera-ashwagandha-to-treat-symptom-exacerbation-in-schizophrenia-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#5
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
K N Roy Chengappa, Jaspreet S Brar, Jessica M Gannon, Patricia J Schlicht
OBJECTIVE: To determine if adjunctive treatment with a standardized extract of Withania somnifera (WSE), with known anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties, improves psychopathology and stress in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (DSM-IV-TR). METHODS: Patients experiencing an exacerbation of symptoms were assigned to WSE (1,000 mg/d) or placebo for 12 weeks, added to their antipsychotic medication, in a random-assignment, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted from April 2013 to July 2016...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36301214/cocaine-falls-into-oblivion-during-volitional-initiation-of-choice-trials
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Youna Vandaele, Eric Augier, Caroline Vouillac-Mendoza, Serge H Ahmed
When facing a choice, most animals quit drugs in favour of a variety of nondrug alternatives. We recently found, rather unexpectedly, that choice of the nondrug alternative is in fact inflexible and habitual. One possible contributing factor to habitual choice is the intermittency and uncontrollability of choice trials in previous studies. Here, we asked whether and to what extent volitional control over the occurrence of choice trials could change animals' preference by preventing habitual choice. To do so, rats were trained to nosepoke in a hole to trigger the presentation of two operant levers: one associated with cocaine, the other with saccharin...
November 2022: Addiction Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36310031/-a-regional-and-projection-specific-role-of-rgsz1-in-the-ventrolateral-periaqueductal-grey-in-the-modulation-of-morphine-reward
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Farhana Sakloth, Omar B Sanchez Reyes, Anne Ruiz, Andrew Nicolais, Randal A Serafini, Kerri D Pryce, Feodora Bertherat, Angelica Torres Berrio, Ivone Gomes, Lakshmi A Devi, Daniel Wacker, Venetia Zachariou
Opioid analgesics exert their therapeutic and adverse effects by activating mu opioid receptors (MOPR), however functional responses to MOPR activation are modulated by distinct signal transduction complexes within the brain. The ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) plays a critical role in modulation of nociception and analgesia, but the exact intracellular pathways associated with opioid responses in this region are not fully understood. We previously showed that knockout of the signal transduction modulator RGSz1 (RGSZ1KO) enhanced analgesic responses to opioids, while it decreased the rewarding efficacy of morphine...
October 30, 2022: Molecular Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36292717/the-pharmacogenetics-of-cannabis-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-pain
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Paolo Poli, Luana Peruzzi, Pierdomenico Maurizi, Antonella Mencucci, Antonella Scocca, Simona Carnevale, Ottavia Spiga, Annalisa Santucci
BACKGROUND: The increase in the medical use of cannabis has revealed a number of beneficial effects, a variety of adverse side effects and great inter-individual variability. Association studies connecting consumption, addiction and side effects related to recreational cannabis use have led to the identification of several polymorphic genes that may play a role in the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of cannabis. METHOD: In total, 600 patients treated with cannabis were genotyped for several candidate polymorphic genes (single-nucleotide polymorphism; SNP), encoding receptors CNR1 and TRPV1; for the ABCB1 transporter; for biotransformation, bioactivation and biosynthesis; and CYP3A4, COMT and UGT2B7 conjugation...
October 11, 2022: Genes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36287740/the-potential-addictive-mechanism-involved-in-repetitive-nonsuicidal-self-injury-the-roles-of-emotion-dysregulation-and-impulsivity-in-adolescents
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jinmeng Liu, Yemiao Gao, Chunxi Liang, Xia Liu
Background and aims: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent in adolescents and is associated with various mental health problems. Repetitive NSSI (R-NSSI), as an extreme manifestation of NSSI, is a growing concern and has been proposed as a behavioral addiction. However, little is known about the potential addictive mechanisms of NSSI. This study aimed to examine the mediating effect of emotion dysregulation and the moderating effect of impulsivity using the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model in adolescents who repeatedly engage in NSSI...
October 25, 2022: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36282967/successful-buprenorphine-transition-while-overlapping-with-a-full-opioid-agonist-to-treat-chronic-pain-a-case-report
#10
Kishan V Patel, Sidharth Sahni, Lanvin F Taylor
Buprenorphine is a partial mu opioid agonist that has been increasingly utilized to treat patients with chronic pain and opioid use disorder (OUD). The drug has proven to provide significant chronic pain relief at low doses ranging from 75 to 1800 mcg. The conventional buprenorphine transitional process delays its introduction until patients begin withdrawal. However, this process can pose a barrier to both patients and providers due to some patients' inability to tolerate traditional prerequisite withdrawal...
October 25, 2022: Journal of osteopathic medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36283655/green-light-exposure-elicits-anti-inflammation-endogenous-opioid-release-and-dampens-synaptic-potentiation-to-relieve-post-surgical-pain
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Laurent F Martin, Kevin Cheng, Stephanie M Washington, Millie Denton, Vasudha Goel, Maithili Khandekar, Tally M Largent-Milnes, Amol Patwardhan, Mohab M Ibrahim
Light therapy improves multiple conditions such as seasonal affective disorders, circadian rhythm dysregulations, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, little is known about its potential benefits in pain management. While current pharmacologic methods are effective in many cases, the associated side effects can limit their use. Non-pharmacological methods would minimize drug dependence, facilitating a reduction of the opioid burden. Green light therapy has been shown to be effective in reducing chronic pain in humans and rodents...
October 22, 2022: Journal of Pain
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30650522/online-porn-addiction-what-we-know-and-what-we-don-t-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Rubén de Alarcón, Javier I de la Iglesia, Nerea M Casado, Angel L Montejo
In the last few years, there has been a wave of articles related to behavioral addictions; some of them have a focus on online pornography addiction. However, despite all efforts, we are still unable to profile when engaging in this behavior becomes pathological. Common problems include: sample bias, the search for diagnostic instrumentals, opposing approximations to the matter, and the fact that this entity may be encompassed inside a greater pathology (i.e., sex addiction) that may present itself with very diverse symptomatology...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36189904/guidelines-for-treatment-of-acute-pain-in-children-the-consensus-statement-of-the-section-of-paediatric-anaesthesiology-and-intensive-therapy-of-the-polish-society-of-anaesthesiology-and-intensive-therapy
#13
Maciej Cettler, Marzena Zielińska, Jowita Rosada-Kurasińska, Anna Kubica-Cielińska, Konrad Jarosz, Alicja Bartkowska-Śniatkowska
RATIONALE AND SCOPE OF THE GUIDELINES Pain is a subjective unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. Acute pain occurs irrespective of age and has a prevalence of about 5% of the general population. Surgical procedures and painful diagnostic procedures are the main causes of this unpleasant and dangerous phenomenon for hospitalized children. It should be remembered that maintaining homeostasis in a child undergoing surgery is also affected by provision of an adequate level of analgesia and sedation as well as nerve conduction block within the surgical site...
2022: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/35927507/methylmalonic-acid-induces-inflammatory-response-and-redox-homeostasis-disruption-in-c6-astroglial-cells-potential-glioprotective-roles-of-melatonin-and-resveratrol
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Rômulo Rodrigo de Souza Almeida, Larissa Daniele Bobermin, Belisa Parmeggiani, Krista Minéia Wartchow, Diogo Onofre Souza, Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves, Moacir Wajner, Guilhian Leipnitz, André Quincozes-Santos
Methylmalonic acidemia is a neurometabolic disorder biochemically characterized by the accumulation of methylmalonic acid (MMA) in different tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS). In this sense, it has been shown that high levels of this organic acid have a key role in the progressive neurological deterioration in patients. Astroglial cells actively participate in a wide range of CNS functions, such as antioxidant defenses and inflammatory response. Considering the role of these cells to maintain brain homeostasis, in the present study, we investigated the effects of MMA on glial parameters, focusing on redox homeostasis and inflammatory process, as well as putative mediators of these events in C6 astroglial cells...
August 4, 2022: Amino Acids
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36203799/potential-mechanisms-of-acupuncture-for-neuropathic-pain-based-on-somatosensory-system
#15
REVIEW
Xin Ma, Wen Chen, Na-Na Yang, Lu Wang, Xiao-Wan Hao, Chun-Xia Tan, Hong-Ping Li, Cun-Zhi Liu
Neuropathic pain, caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory system, is common and distressing. In view of the high human and economic burden, more effective treatment strategies were urgently needed. Acupuncture has been increasingly used as an adjuvant or complementary therapy for neuropathic pain. Although the therapeutic effects of acupuncture have been demonstrated in various high-quality randomized controlled trials, there is significant heterogeneity in the underlying mechanisms. This review aimed to summarize the potential mechanisms of acupuncture on neuropathic pain based on the somatosensory system, and guided for future both foundational and clinical studies...
2022: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36179375/an-overview-of-mindfulness-oriented-addiction-and-pain-recovery
#16
REVIEW
Andrew J Biedlingmaier, Timothy G Yovankin, Maju Mathew Koola, Michael Yanuck, Sajoy Purathumuriyil Varghese
There is evidence that mindfulness-based interventions are effective as stress-reduction techniques in people with various stressor-related disorders. Research also shows overall improvement in mental health well-being in practitioners of mindfulness. However, there is limited literature probing the potential negative impacts of mindfulness practice. Relapse is a major challenge in substance use disorders (SUDs), particularly for people with chronic pain. There is an overlap between SUDs and chronic pain, which share common pathophysiological pathways that could contribute to poor pain control and mental instability...
October 1, 2022: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36188580/potential-therapeutic-effects-and-pharmacological-evidence-of-sinomenine-in-central-nervous-system-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Hongxiang Hong, Xu Lu, Qun Lu, Chao Huang, Zhiming Cui
Sinomenine is a natural compound extracted from the medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum. Its supplementation has been shown to present benefits in a variety of animal models of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, such as cerebral ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury (TBI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), epilepsy, depression, multiple sclerosis, morphine tolerance, and glioma. Therefore, sinomenine is now considered a potential agent for the prevention and/or treatment of CNS disorders...
2022: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36171828/psychedelics-their-limited-understanding-and-future-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-pain
#18
REVIEW
Vedant N Hedau, Ashish P Anjankar
Psychedelics are hallucinogenic drugs that alter the state of consciousness substantially. They bring about psychological, auditory, and visual changes. The psychedelics act on the brain, implying that they have a powerful psychological impact. One of the main factors contributing to disability worldwide is pain. The majority of people deal with pain on a daily basis. Living with chronic pain affects daily life and has social implications. Chronic pain can be associated with any disease that may be genetic, idiopathic, or traumatic...
August 2022: Curēus
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36165856/opioid-tolerance-and-opioid-induced-hyperalgesia-is-trkb-modulation-a-potential-pharmacological-solution
#19
REVIEW
Sin Yin Lim, Pelin Cengiz
Opioids are widely prescribed for moderate to severe pain in patients with acute illness, cancer pain, and chronic noncancer pain. However, long-term opioid use can cause opioid tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), contributing to the opioid misuse and addiction crisis. Strategies to mitigate opioid tolerance and OIH are needed to reduce opioid use and its sequelae. Currently, there are few effective pharmacological strategies that reduce opioid tolerance and OIH. The intrinsic tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) ligand, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), has been shown to modulate pain...
December 1, 2022: Neuropharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36142247/targeting-nmda-receptors-at-the-neurovascular-unit-past-and-future-treatments-for-central-nervous-system-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Célia Seillier, Flavie Lesept, Olivier Toutirais, Fanny Potzeha, Manuel Blanc, Denis Vivien
The excitatory neurotransmission of the central nervous system (CNS) mainly involves glutamate and its receptors, especially N-methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDARs). These receptors have been extensively described on neurons and, more recently, also on other cell types. Nowadays, the study of their differential expression and function is taking a growing place in preclinical and clinical research. The diversity of NMDAR subtypes and their signaling pathways give rise to pleiotropic functions such as brain development, neuronal plasticity, maturation along with excitotoxicity, blood-brain barrier integrity, and inflammation...
September 7, 2022: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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