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Elizabeth F Loftus
For more than four decades, I have been studying human memory. My research concerns the malleable nature of memory. Information suggested to an individual about an event can be integrated with the memory of the event itself, so that what actually occurred, and what was discussed later about what may have occurred, become inextricably interwoven, allowing distortion, elaboration, and even total fabrication. In my writings, classes, and public speeches, I've tried to convey one important take-home message: Just because someone tells you something in great detail, with much confidence, and with emotion, it doesn't mean that it is true...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
Jutta S Mayer, Robert A Bittner, David E J Linden, Danko Nikolić
Visual selective attention and visual working memory (WM) share the same capacity-limited resources. We investigated whether and how participants can cope with a task in which these 2 mechanisms interfere. The task required participants to scan an array of 9 objects in order to select the target locations and to encode the items presented at these locations into WM (1 to 5 shapes). Determination of the target locations required either few attentional resources ("popout condition") or an attention-demanding serial search ("non pop-out condition")...
July 15, 2008: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
Aymen Ben Abbes, Emmanuelle Gavault, Thierry Ripoll
We conducted a series of experiments to explore how the spatial configuration of objects influences the selection and the processing of these objects in a visual short-term memory task. We designed a new experiment in which participants had to memorize 4 targets presented among 4 distractors. Targets were cued during the presentation of distractor objects. Their locations varied according to 4 spatial configurations. From the first to the last configuration, the distance between targets' locations was progressively increased...
2014: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
Philipp Thomas, Thomas Rammsayer, Karl Schweizer, Stefan Troche
Numerous studies reported a strong link between working memory capacity (WMC) and fluid intelligence (Gf), although views differ in respect to how close these two constructs are related to each other. In the present study, we used a WMC task with five levels of task demands to assess the relationship between WMC and Gf by means of a new methodological approach referred to as fixed-links modeling. Fixed-links models belong to the family of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and are of particular interest for experimental, repeated-measures designs...
2015: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
James L McGaugh
Our own experiences, as well as the findings of many studies, suggest that emotionally arousing experiences can create lasting memories. This autobiographical article provides a brief summary of the author's research investigating neurobiological systems responsible for the influence of emotional arousal on the consolidation of lasting memories. The research began with the finding that stimulant drugs enhanced memory in rats when administered shortly after training. Those findings suggested the possibility that endogenous systems activated by arousal might influence neural processes underlying memory consolidation...
January 3, 2015: Annual Review of Psychology
Patrick Armistead-Jehle, Paul Green, Roger O Gervais, Lars D Hungerford
This study examined the utility of the Word Memory Test (WMT) as a measure of verbal episodic memory by comparing select WMT subtests to the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) First and Second Editions (CVLT-II) across two samples. Correlations between the WMT and CVLT/CVLT-II subtests were statistically significant in the expected direction. Effect sizes were examined to assess the degree to which the WMT memory subtests and the CVLT First Edition subtests discriminated between groups of people who would be expected to differ from each other in verbal memory abilities...
2015: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Elizabeth F Loftus, Deborah Davis
The issues surrounding repressed, recovered, or false memories have sparked one of the greatest controversies in the mental health profession in the twentieth century. We review evidence concerning the existence of the repression and recovery of autobiographical memories of traumatic events and research on the development of false autobiographical memories, how specific therapeutic procedures can lead to false memories, and individual vulnerability to resisting false memories. These findings have implications for therapeutic practice, for forensic practice, for research and training in psychology, and for public policy...
2006: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Justyna Olszewska, Joanna Ulatowska
The present research investigated memory vulnerability to distortions. Different encoding strategies were used when categorized lists were studied. The authors assumed that an imagery strategy would be responsible for decreasing false memories more than a word-whispering strategy, which is consistent with the model of semantic access and previous research in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm (the DRM paradigm; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995). A normative study of category lists and 4 experiments were conducted to verify the memory vulnerability to different encoding strategies (imagery, word-whispering, control)...
2013: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
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