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Psych education review

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November 2004: American Journal of Psychiatry
Claudia Cooper, Andrew Sommerlad, Constantine G Lyketsos, Gill Livingston
OBJECTIVE: Public health campaigns encouraging early help seeking have increased rates of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnosis in Western countries, but we know little about how to treat or predict dementia outcomes in persons with the condition. METHOD: The authors searched electronic databases and references for longitudinal studies reporting potentially modifiable risk factors for incident dementia after MCI. Two authors independently evaluated study quality using a checklist...
April 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
Amy E Pinkham, Peiying Liu, Hanzhang Lu, Michael Kriegsman, Claire Simpson, Carol Tamminga
OBJECTIVE: The amygdala's role in threat perception suggests that increased activation of this region may be related to paranoid ideation. However, investigations of amygdala function in paranoid individuals with schizophrenia, compared with both healthy individuals and nonparanoid individuals with schizophrenia, have consistently reported reduced task-related activation. The reliance of blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional MRI on a contrast between events and baseline, and the inability to quantitatively measure this baseline, may account for these counterintuitive findings...
August 1, 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
Eric P Hazen, Nicole A Sherry, Sareh Parangi, Carlos A Rabito, Peter M Sadow
Presentation of Case. Dr. Emily K. Gray (Psychiatry): A 15-year-old girl with Graves’ disease was admitted to this hospital because of psychotic symptoms. The patient had been well until approximately 3 months before the current admission, when intermittent dizziness, palpitations, near syncope,..
March 26, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
Wouter G Staal, Marieke Langen, Sarai van Dijk, Vincent T Mensen, Sarah Durston
A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the DRD3 gene (rs167771) was recently associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Different polymorphisms of rs167771 corresponded to varying degrees of stereotyped behaviour. As DRD3 receptors are relatively overexpressed in the striatum, we investigated whether striatal volume was related to these polymorphisms in autism. We assessed volumes of caudate nucleus and putamen in 86 participants with ASD (mean age 15.3 years). MANCOVA showed an association between alleles of the rs167771 SNP and the volume of striatal structures...
May 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Lara Cushing, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Madeline Wander, Manuel Pastor
A growing body of literature suggests that more unequal societies have more polluted and degraded environments, perhaps helping explain why more unequal societies are often less healthy. We summarize the mechanisms by which inequality can lead to environmental degradation and their relevance for public health. We review the evidence of a relationship between environmental quality and social inequality along the axes of income, wealth, political power, and race and ethnicity. Our review suggests that the evidence is strongest for air- and water-quality measures that have more immediate health implications; evidence is less strong for more dispersed pollutants that have longer-term health impacts...
March 18, 2015: Annual Review of Public Health
Yi-Yuan Tang, Britta K Hölzel, Michael I Posner
Research over the past two decades broadly supports the claim that mindfulness meditation - practiced widely for the reduction of stress and promotion of health - exerts beneficial effects on physical and mental health, and cognitive performance. Recent neuroimaging studies have begun to uncover the brain areas and networks that mediate these positive effects. However, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear, and it is apparent that more methodologically rigorous studies are required if we are to gain a full understanding of the neuronal and molecular bases of the changes in the brain that accompany mindfulness meditation...
April 2015: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
David Axelson, Benjamin Goldstein, Tina Goldstein, Kelly Monk, Haifeng Yu, Mary Beth Hickey, Dara Sakolsky, Rasim Diler, Danella Hafeman, John Merranko, Satish Iyengar, David Brent, David Kupfer, Boris Birmaher
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to identify diagnostic risk factors of manic, mixed, or hypomanic episodes in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder ("high-risk offspring"). METHOD: High-risk offspring 6-18 years old (N=391) and demographically matched offspring (N=248) of community parents without bipolar disorder were assessed longitudinally with standardized diagnostic instruments by staff blind to parental diagnoses. Follow-up assessments were completed in 91% of the offspring (mean follow-up interval, 2...
July 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
Lars Vedel Kessing, Lars Søndergård, Kajsa Kvist, Per Kragh Andersen
CONTEXT: Prior observational studies suggest that treatment with lithium may be associated with reduced risk of suicide in bipolar disorder. However, these studies are biased toward patients with the most severe disorders, and the relation to sex and age has seldom been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether treatment with lithium reduces the risk of suicide in a nationwide study. DESIGN: An observational cohort study with linkage of registers of all prescribed lithium and recorded suicides in Denmark during a period from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 1999...
August 2005: Archives of General Psychiatry
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