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Rafael Simó, Andreea Ciudin, Olga Simó-Servat, Cristina Hernández
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two of the most common diseases of aging around the world. Given the frequency with which T2D and AD occur, the notion that people with T2D may be at increased risk for AD has large societal consequences, and understanding the mechanistic links between these diseases is imperative for the development of effective AD prevention and treatment strategies. Apart from being an accelerator of AD, T2D is associated with a progressive cognitive decline...
May 2017: Acta Diabetologica
Christopher M Ryan, Eelco van Duinkerken, Caterina Rosano
Mild cognitive dysfunction is a well-established complication of diabetes and its management, although large numbers of psychologists and health professionals may be unaware of its existence, clinical implications, and etiology. Drawing on results from key studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, this article delineates the neurocognitive phenotypes characteristic of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D), and identifies the most plausible risk factors, both those that may be modifiable, like degree of metabolic control, and those that cannot be changed, like the age when a child or adult is diagnosed...
October 2016: American Psychologist
Colleen Pappas, Ross Andel, Frank J Infurna, Shyam Seetharaman
BACKGROUND: As the ageing population grows, it is important to identify strategies to moderate cognitive ageing. OBJECTIVE: We examined glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and diabetes in relation to level and change in episodic memory in older adults with and without diabetes. METHODS: Data from 4419 older adults with (n=950) and without (n=3469) diabetes participating in a nationally representative longitudinal panel study (the Health and Retirement Study) were examined...
February 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Molly Stanley, Shannon L Macauley, David M Holtzman
Individuals with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), although the causal relationship remains poorly understood. Alterations in insulin signaling (IS) are reported in the AD brain. Moreover, oligomers/fibrils of amyloid-β (Aβ) can lead to neuronal insulin resistance and intranasal insulin is being explored as a potential therapy for AD. Conversely, elevated insulin levels (ins) are found in AD patients and high insulin has been reported to increase Aβ levels and tau phosphorylation, which could exacerbate AD pathology...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Lingning Huang, Liyong Yang, Ximei Shen, Sunjie Yan
Elderly patients with type 2 diabetes are at a greater risk for cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between the degree of hyperglycemia and cognitive status in nondemented, elderly diabetics. Between Jan 2013 and Dec 2014, 1174 geriatric patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the study (579 males; age ≥ 60 years; from Fuzhou, Fujian, China). Cognitive function was measured with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)...
April 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Rajat Sandhir, Smriti Gupta
Diabetes mellitus (DM), a metabolic disorder is a major orchestra influencing brain and behavioral responses via direct or indirect mechanisms. Many lines of evidence suggest that diabetic patients apparently face severe brain complications, but the story is far from being fully understood. Type 2 diabetes, an ever increasing epidemic and its chronic brain complications are implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Evidences from clinical and experimental studies suggest that insulin draws a clear trajectory from the peripheral system to the central nervous system...
September 25, 2015: World Journal of Diabetes
Fang-Chi Hsu, Laura M Raffield, Christina E Hugenschmidt, Amanda Cox, Jianzhao Xu, J Jeffery Carr, Barry I Freedman, Joseph A Maldjian, Jeff D Williamson, Donald W Bowden
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cognitive decline and dementia, and elevated burdens of vascular disease are hypothesized to contribute to this risk. These relationships were examined in the Diabetes Heart Study-MIND using a battery of cognitive tests, neuroimaging measures and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden assessed by coronary artery calcified (CAC) plaque. We hypothesized that CAC would attenuate the association between neuroimaging measures and cognition performance...
2015: Neuroepidemiology
Chulho Kim, Jong-Hee Sohn, Min Uk Jang, Sung-Hun Kim, Moon-Gi Choi, Ohk-Hyun Ryu, Sungwha Lee, Hui-Chul Choi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diabetes is associated with cognitive decline as well as the development of dementia. Although mean blood glucose levels are typically used to assess the status of diabetic patients, glucose variability is also involved in the manifestation of macro- and microvascular complications in this population. Thus, the present study sought to determine whether visit-to-visit glucose variability contributes to cognitive decline in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The present study assessed 68 patients with type 2 diabetes using several validated neuropsychological measures...
2015: PloS One
Poojitha Rajasekar, Christina L O'Neill, Lydia Eeles, Alan W Stitt, Reinhold J Medina
The vascular complications of diabetes significantly impact the quality of life and mortality in diabetic patients. Extensive evidence from various human clinical trials has clearly established that a period of poor glycemic control early in the disease process carries negative consequences, such as an increase in the development and progression of vascular complications that becomes evident many years later. Importantly, intensive glycemic control established later in the disease process cannot reverse or slow down the onset or progression of diabetic vasculopathy...
2015: Journal of Diabetes Research
Insa Feinkohl, Jackie F Price, Mark W J Strachan, Brian M Frier
Older people with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of developing cognitive impairment, for which several potential risk factors have been proposed. The present article reviews evidence in people with type 2 diabetes for associations of cognitive impairment with a range of vascular, metabolic, and psychosocial risk factors, many of which have a higher prevalence in people with type 2 diabetes than in non-diabetic adults of a similar age. Definitive research studies in this field are few in number. The risk factors may be involved in causal pathways or may act as useful markers of cerebrovascular damage (or both), and for which relatively consistent evidence is available, include poor glycemic control, hypoglycemia, microvascular disease, inflammation, and depression...
2015: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Akinori Futamura, Yukiko Mori, Mitsuru Kawamura
An aging global population is driving the current epidemic of dementia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes is a known risk factor for the development of vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and mild cognitive impairment. Good control of diabetes may improve cognitive decline and prevent Alzheimer's disease. Mild cognitive impairment with type 2 diabetes (DM-MCI) often presents as a decline in attention, psychomotor speed, executive function, and memory. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is one of the best screening tools for detecting DM-MCI...
June 2015: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Z Kevin Lu, Minghui Li, Jing Yuan, Jun Wu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess whether diabetes mellitus is associated with overall dementia and its subtypes (Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia) among the elderly and to identify the role of cerebrovascular disease in the association between diabetes and dementia. METHODS: In a retrospective cross-sectional study, 5160 community-dwelling and institutionalized Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or over without health maintenance organization enrollment from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey in 2010 were included...
January 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Wayne Katon, Henrik Sondergaard Pedersen, Anette Riisgaard Ribe, Morten Fenger-Grøn, Dimitry Davydow, Frans Boch Waldorff, Mogens Vestergaard
IMPORTANCE: Although depression and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) may independently increase the risk for dementia, no studies have examined whether the risk for dementia among people with comorbid depression and DM is higher than the sum of each exposure individually. OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk for all-cause dementia among persons with depression, DM, or both compared with persons with neither exposure. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We performed a national population-based cohort study of 2 454 532 adults, including 477 133 (19...
June 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
Andrea L Roberts, Jessica C Agnew-Blais, Donna Spiegelman, Laura D Kubzansky, Susan M Mason, Sandro Galea, Frank B Hu, Janet W Rich-Edwards, Karestan C Koenen
IMPORTANCE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common, debilitating mental disorder that has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and its risk factors, including obesity, in cross-sectional studies. If PTSD increases risk of incident T2D, enhanced surveillance in high-risk populations may be warranted. OBJECTIVE: To conduct one of the first longitudinal studies of PTSD and incidence of T2D in a civilian sample of women. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Nurses' Health Study II, a US longitudinal cohort of women (N = 49,739)...
March 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
Shyam Seetharaman, Ross Andel, Cathy McEvoy, Anna K Dahl Aslan, Deborah Finkel, Nancy L Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Although evidence indicates that Type II Diabetes is related to abnormal brain aging, the influence of elevated blood glucose on long-term cognitive change is unclear. In addition, the relationship between diet-based glycemic load and cognitive aging has not been extensively studied. The focus of this study was to investigate the influence of diet-based glycemic load and blood glucose on cognitive aging in older adults followed for up to 16 years. METHODS: Eight-hundred and thirty-eight cognitively healthy adults aged ≥50 years (M = 63...
April 2015: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Andy Menke, Keith F Rust, Judith Fradkin, Yiling J Cheng, Catherine C Cowie
BACKGROUND: The increase in the prevalence of diabetes over the past few decades has coincided with an increase in certain risk factors for diabetes, such as a changing race/ethnicity distribution, an aging population, and a rising obesity prevalence. OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which the increase in diabetes prevalence is explained by changing distributions of race/ethnicity, age, and obesity prevalence in U.S. adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, using data from 5 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys): NHANES II (1976-1980), NHANES III (1988-1994), and the continuous NHANES 1999-2002, 2003-2006, and 2007-2010...
September 2, 2014: Annals of Internal Medicine
Fernanda G De Felice, Mychael V Lourenco, Sergio T Ferreira
Compelling preclinical and clinical evidence supports a pathophysiological connection between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and diabetes. Altered metabolism, inflammation, and insulin resistance are key pathological features of both diseases. For many years, it was generally considered that the brain was insensitive to insulin, but it is now accepted that this hormone has central neuromodulatory functions, including roles in learning and memory, that are impaired in AD. However, until recently, the molecular mechanisms accounting for brain insulin resistance in AD have remained elusive...
February 2014: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Sophie M Steculorum, Maite Solas, Jens C Brüning
During past decades, ever-increasing life expectancy, despite the development of a sedentary lifestyle and altered eating habits, has led to a dramatic parallel increase in the prevalence of age-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and neurodegenerative disorders. Converging evidence from animal and human studies has indicated that insulin resistance in the central nervous system (CNS) is observed in both T2DM and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), leading to the hypothesis that impaired neuronal insulin action might be a unifying pathomechanism in the development of both diseases...
February 2014: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Sergio T Ferreira, Julia R Clarke, Theresa R Bomfim, Fernanda G De Felice
A link between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and metabolic disorders has been established, with patients with type 2 diabetes at increased risk of developing AD and vice versa. The incidence of metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is increasing at alarming rates worldwide, primarily as a result of poor lifestyle habits. In parallel, as the world population ages, the prevalence of AD, the most common form of dementia in the elderly, also increases. In addition to their epidemiologic and clinical association, mounting recent evidence indicates shared mechanisms of pathogenesis between metabolic disorders and AD...
February 2014: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
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