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15 papers 0 to 25 followers
Katya Rozovsky, Kristin Udjus, Nagwa Wilson, Nicholas James Barrowman, Natalia Simanovsky, Elka Miller
BACKGROUND: Radiography, typically the first-line imaging study for diagnosis of craniosynostosis, exposes infants to ionizing radiation. We aimed to compare the accuracy of cranial ultrasound (CUS) with radiography for the diagnosis or exclusion of craniosynostosis. METHODS: Children aged 0 to 12 months who were assessed for craniosynostosis during 2011-2013 by using 4-view skull radiography and CUS of the sagittal, coronal, lambdoid, and metopic sutures were included in this prospective study...
February 2016: Pediatrics
Philip J Weston, Deborah L Harris, Malcolm Battin, Julie Brown, Joanne E Hegarty, Jane E Harding
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoglycaemia, a common condition, can be associated with brain injury. It is frequently managed by providing infants with an alternative source of glucose, given enterally with formula or intravenously with dextrose solution. This often requires that mother and baby are cared for in separate environments and may inhibit breast feeding. Dextrose gel is simple and inexpensive and can be administered directly to the buccal mucosa for rapid correction of hypoglycaemia, in association with continued breast feeding and maternal care...
May 4, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Barbara B Warner, Phillip I Tarr
Necrotizing enterocolitis remains an intractable consequence of preterm birth. Gut microbial communities, especially bacterial communities, have long been suspected to play a role in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis. Direct-from-stool nucleic acid sequencing technology now offers insights into the make-up of these communities. Data are now converging on the roles of Gram-negative bacteria as causative agents, despite the dynamic nature of bacterial populations, the varying technologies and sampling strategies, and the overall small sample sizes in these case-control studies...
December 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Josef Neu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
(no author information available yet)
The prevention of pain in neonates should be the goal of all pediatricians and health care professionals who work with neonates, not only because it is ethical but also because repeated painful exposures have the potential for deleterious consequences. Neonates at greatest risk of neurodevelopmental impairment as a result of preterm birth (ie, the smallest and sickest) are also those most likely to be exposed to the greatest number of painful stimuli in the NICU. Although there are major gaps in knowledge regarding the most effective way to prevent and relieve pain in neonates, proven and safe therapies are currently underused for routine minor, yet painful procedures...
February 2016: Pediatrics
Karen Whitfield, Claudia Barkeij, Angela North
AIM: To present a case of an extremely premature infant and the role that the specialist neonatal pharmacist has on the quality of care of these patients. METHOD: Interventions and recommendations made by the pharmacists over the admission of a triplet born at 23 weeks and 5 days gestation were recorded. The type of interventions were categorised and classified for risk using a consequence/probability matrix.1 RESULTS: The patient required admission to the intensive care unit and subsequently the special care unit for a period of 163 days before discharge home...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Dan L Ellsbury, Reese H Clark, Robert Ursprung, Darren L Handler, Elizabeth D Dodd, Alan R Spitzer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Despite advances in neonatal medicine, infants requiring neonatal intensive care continue to experience substantial morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this initiative was to generate large-scale simultaneous improvements in multiple domains of care in a large neonatal network through a program called the "100,000 Babies Campaign." METHODS: Key drivers of neonatal morbidity and mortality were identified. A system for retrospective morbidity and mortality review was used to identify problem areas for project prioritization...
April 2016: Pediatrics
Raffaella Colombatti, Laura Sainati, Daniele Trevisanuto
Neonatal anemia is a frequent occurrence in neonatal intensive care units. Red blood cell transfusion criteria in case of blood loss are clearly defined but optimal hemoglobin or hematocrit thresholds of transfusion for anemia due to decreased production or increased destruction are less evident. This review focuses on the causes of anemia in the newborn period and the most recent evidence-based treatment options, including transfusion and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.
February 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
John D Lantos
Neonatal mortality rates vary widely among countries. According to data from the World Health Organization, neonatal mortality in low- and low-middle-income countries is ∼30 per 1000 babies. In upper middle-income countries, that number was just 10 per 1000. In the highest-income countries, it was <5 per 1000. These data may not be accurate. Many countries do not report the tiniest babies as live births. Thus, their reported infant mortality rates are much lower than their actual infant mortality rates...
October 2015: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Mohammad Ahmad Hassan, Marc Mendler, Miriam Maurer, Markus Waitz, Li Huang, Helmut D Hummler
BACKGROUND: Pulse oximetry is widely used in intensive care and emergency conditions to monitor arterial oxygenation and to guide oxygen therapy. OBJECTIVE: To study the reliability of pulse oximetry in comparison with CO-oximetry in newborn piglets during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODOLOGY: In a prospective cohort study in 30 healthy newborn piglets, cardiac arrest was induced, and thereafter each piglet received CPR for 20 min...
2015: Neonatology
Thomas Wood, Marianne Thoresen
Therapeutic hypothermia is the only treatment currently recommended for moderate or severe encephalopathy of hypoxic‒ischaemic origin in term neonates. Though the effects of hypothermia on human physiology have been explored for many decades, much of the data comes from animal or adult studies; the latter originally after accidental hypothermia, followed by application of controlled hypothermia after cardiac arrest or trauma, or during cardiopulmonary bypass. Though this work is informative, the effects of hypothermia on neonatal physiology after perinatal asphyxia must be considered in the context of a prolonged hypoxic insult that has already induced a number of significant physiological sequelae...
April 2015: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Nadia Falah, David M Haas
Landmark early work has led to the nearly universal use of antenatal corticosteroids to accelerate fetal lung maturity with pregnancies complicated by impending preterm birth. Antenatal corticosteroids clearly reduce respiratory morbidity, death, and other adverse neonatal outcomes. Limited pregnant human pharmacokinetic data and some animal data give clinicians some information as to the behavior of the drug in the body. However, there is controversy about the type, amount, and frequency of steroid to use for this therapy...
December 2014: Seminars in Perinatology
Peter Sidebotham, James Fraser, Peter Fleming, Martin Ward-Platt, Richard Hain
In the past century, child mortality has fallen to very low rates in all developed countries. However, rates between and within countries vary widely, and factors can be identified that could be modified to reduce the risk of future deaths. An understanding of the nature and patterns of child death and of the factors contributing to child deaths is essential to drive preventive initiatives. We discuss the epidemiology of child deaths in England and Wales. We use available data, particularly that of death registration and other available datasets, and published literature to emphasise issues relevant to reduction of child deaths in developed countries...
September 6, 2014: Lancet
Allan Colver, Charles Fairhurst, Peter O D Pharoah
The syndrome of cerebral palsy encompasses a large group of childhood movement and posture disorders. Severity, patterns of motor involvement, and associated impairments such as those of communication, intellectual ability, and epilepsy vary widely. Overall prevalence has remained stable in the past 40 years at 2-3·5 cases per 1000 livebirths, despite changes in antenatal and perinatal care. The few studies available from developing countries suggest prevalence of comparable magnitude. Cerebral palsy is a lifelong disorder; approaches to intervention, whether at an individual or environmental level, should recognise that quality of life and social participation throughout life are what individuals with cerebral palsy seek, not improved physical function for its own sake...
April 5, 2014: Lancet
Deborah L Harris, Philip J Weston, Matthew Signal, J Geoffrey Chase, Jane E Harding
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoglycaemia is common, and a preventable cause of brain damage. Dextrose gel is used to reverse hypoglycaemia in individuals with diabetes; however, little evidence exists for its use in babies. We aimed to assess whether treatment with dextrose gel was more effective than feeding alone for reversal of neonatal hypoglycaemia in at-risk babies. METHODS: We undertook a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at a tertiary centre in New Zealand between Dec 1, 2008, and Nov 31, 2010...
December 21, 2013: Lancet
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