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Evaluation mental disorders

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57 papers 0 to 25 followers
Yi-Chun Chen, Hsien-Hao Tsao, Yi-Chuan Chu, Jiun-Jie Wang, Jiann-Der Lee, Pi-Yueh Chang, Wen-Chuin Hsu
White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) include periventricular WMH (pvWMH) and deep WMH. When hyperintensities in the basal ganglia or brainstem are included, the collective term is subcortical hyperintensities. Both WMH and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) are risk factors for cognitive decline. This prospective study enrolled participants aged 50-85 years and followed their neuropsychological assessments annually for 2 years to explore the interactive effects of WMH and MTA on longitudinal clinical decline...
2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Michael Malek-Ahmadi, Kathy O'Connor, Sharon Schofield, David W Coon, Edward Zamrini
BACKGROUND: The Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) has become one of the most widely used cognitive screening instruments since its initial publication. To date, only a handful of studies have explored longitudinal characteristics of the MoCA. AIM: The aim of this study is to characterize the trajectory of MoCA performance across a broad age continuum of older adults. METHODS: Data from 467 cognitively normal participants were used in this analysis...
August 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Corina Satler, Luiza Guimarães, Carlos Tomaz
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with progressive impairment of higher-level cognitive abilities. Previous research suggests that early impairment of executive functions occurs during the course of the disease, but few studies have specifically investigated planning ability in an AD population. Objective: The purpose of the current study was to examine whether AD patients retain the ability to plan ahead, by analyzing specificities of their behavior in successfully achieving a pre-established goal...
April 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
Andrea Bosco, Giuseppina Spano, Alessandro O Caffò, Antonella Lopez, Ignazio Grattagliano, Giuseppe Saracino, Katia Pinto, Frans Hoogeveen, Giulio E Lancioni
Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) is a test providing a brief screening for people with cognitive impairment due to aging or neurodegenerative syndromes. In Italy, as in the rest of the world, several validation studies of MoCA have been carried out. This study compared, for the first time in Italy, a sample of people with probable Alzheimer's Disease (AD) with healthy counterparts. The study also compared two community-dwelling groups of aged participants with and without probable cognitive impairment, as discriminated by two cut-off points of adjusted MMSE score...
December 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Eitan Auriel, Efrat Kliper, Shani Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Jeremy Molad, Shlomo Berliner, Itzhak Shapira, Dafna Ben-Bashat, Ludmila Shopin, Oren Tene, Gary A Rosenberg, Natan M Bornstein, Einor Ben Assayag
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the interrelationship among impaired renal function, brain pathology on imaging, and cognitive decline in a longitudinal poststroke cohort. METHODS: The Tel Aviv Brain Acute Stroke Cohort study is a prospective cohort of mild-moderate ischemic stroke/TIA survivors without dementia who underwent a 3T MRI and were cognitively assessed at admission and for 24 months following stroke. Renal function was evaluated at admission by creatinine clearance (CCl) estimation...
May 24, 2016: Neurology
Soon-Cheol Chung, Mi-Hyun Choi, Hyung-Sik Kim, Jung-Chul Lee, Sung-Jun Park, Ul-Ho Jeong, Ji-Hye Baek, Seon-Young Gim, Young Chil Choi, Beob-Yi Lee, Dae-Woon Lim, Boseong Kim
The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in and correlations between cognitive abilities and brain volumes in healthy control (HC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) groups. The Korean Version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD-K), which is used to diagnose AD, was used to measure the cognitive abilities of the study subjects, and the volumes of typical brain components related to AD diagnosis-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), gray matter (GM), and white matter (WM)-were acquired...
May 2016: Clinical Anatomy
João M N Duarte
From epidemiological studies it is known that diabetes patients display increased risk of developing dementia. Moreover, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are also accompanied by impaired glucose homeostasis and insulin signalling. Although there is plenty of evidence for a connection between insulin-resistant diabetes and AD, definitive linking mechanisms remain elusive. Cerebrovascular complications of diabetes, alterations in glucose homeostasis and insulin signalling, as well as recurrent hypoglycaemia are the factors that most likely affect brain function and structure...
September 2015: Aging and Disease
Joel Raskin, Jeffrey Cummings, John Hardy, Kory Schuh, Robert A Dean
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with interrelated molecular, physiological, anatomical, biomarker, and cognitive dimensions. METHODS: This article reviews the biological changes (genetic, molecular, and cellular) underlying AD and their correlation with the clinical syndrome. RESULTS: Dementia associated with AD is related to the aberrant production, processing, and clearance of beta-amyloid and tau...
2015: Current Alzheimer Research
E Cavedo, S Lista, Z Khachaturian, P Aisen, P Amouyel, K Herholz, C R Jack, R Sperling, J Cummings, K Blennow, S O'Bryant, G B Frisoni, A Khachaturian, M Kivipelto, W Klunk, K Broich, S Andrieu, M Thiebaut de Schotten, J-F Mangin, A A Lammertsma, K Johnson, S Teipel, A Drzezga, A Bokde, O Colliot, H Bakardjian, H Zetterberg, B Dubois, B Vellas, L S Schneider, H Hampel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slowly progressing non-linear dynamic brain disease in which pathophysiological abnormalities, detectable in vivo by biological markers, precede overt clinical symptoms by many years to decades. Use of these biomarkers for the detection of early and preclinical AD has become of central importance following publication of two international expert working group's revised criteria for the diagnosis of AD dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD, prodromal AD and preclinical AD...
December 2014: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
Philippe Voyer, Nathalie Champoux, Johanne Desrosiers, Philippe Landreville, Jane McCusker, Johanne Monette, Maryse Savoie, Pierre-Hugues Carmichael, Hélène Richard, Sylvie Richard
The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of RADAR (Recognizing Active Delirium As part of your Routine) as a measure of the sixth vital sign. This study was a secondary analysis of a study (N = 193) that took place in one acute care hospital and one long-term care facility. The primary outcome was a positive sixth vital sign, defined as the presence of both an altered level of consciousness and inattention. These indicators were assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method. RADAR identified 30 of the 43 participants as having a positive sixth vital sign and 58 of the 70 cases as not, yielding a sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 83%, respectively...
February 2016: Clinical Nursing Research
J Olazarán, M C Hoyos-Alonso, T del Ser, A Garrido Barral, J L Conde-Sala, F Bermejo-Pareja, S López-Pousa, D Pérez-Martínez, A Villarejo-Galende, J Cacho, E Navarro, A Oliveros-Cid, J Peña-Casanova, C Carnero-Pardo
INTRODUCTION: Brief cognitive tests (BCT) may help detect cognitive impairment (CI) in the clinical setting. Several BCT have been developed and/or validated in our country, but we lack specific recommendations for use. DEVELOPMENT: Review of studies on the diagnostic accuracy of BCT for CI, using studies conducted in Spain with BCT which take less than 20 min. We provide recommendations of use based on expert consensus and established on the basis of BCT characteristics and study results...
April 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Paula T Trzepacz, Helen Hochstetler, Shufang Wang, Brett Walker, Andrew J Saykin
BACKGROUND: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was developed to enable earlier detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) relative to familiar multi-domain tests like the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE). Clinicians need to better understand the relationship between MoCA and MMSE scores. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, we analyzed 219 healthy control (HC), 299 MCI, and 100 Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia cases from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI)-GO/2 database to evaluate MMSE and MoCA score distributions and select MoCA values to capture early and late MCI cases...
September 7, 2015: BMC Geriatrics
Jennifer N Travis Seidl, Paul J Massman
Previous research has demonstrated an association between the emotional and behavioral symptoms of dementia, known as neuropsychiatric symptoms, and cognitive and functional decline among patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). The present study aimed to identify associations between neuropsychiatric symptoms as measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire (NPI-Q) and cognitive and functional performance. Participants were 256 AD patients enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease and Memory Disorders Center at Baylor College of Medicine...
April 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Daniel S Brown, Ira H Bernstein, Shawn M McClintock, C Munro Cullum, Richard B Dewey, Mustafa Husain, Laura H Lacritz
OBJECTIVE: To examine the sensitivity and specificity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), a brief cognitive screening measure previously validated for use in Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's Disease-8 (AD8), an eight-item informant report used to screen for dementia, but not yet validated for use in PD, to identify cognitive impairment in a sample of 111 patients with PD. METHODS: Cognitive impairment was determined based on a battery of neuropsychological measures, excluding the MoCA and AD8...
March 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Erin Logue, Janice Marceaux, Valerie Balldin, Robin C Hilsabeck
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to provide further criterion and construct validation of the Pillbox Test, a brief, ecologically valid measure designed to assess executive functioning(EF). METHOD: Participants were 179 older male veterans who completed the Pillbox Test as part of a neuropsychological evaluation. RESULTS: Performance on the Pillbox Test differed significantly between patients with and without dementia, with total error scores of ≥ 5 and ≥ 7 showing similar levels of sensitivity and specificity at 67% and at or near 70%, respectively...
2015: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Gemma Vall, Fernando Gutiérrez, Josep M Peri, Miguel Gárriz, Liliana Ferraz, Eva Baillés, Jordi E Obiols
OBJECTIVES: Dimensional pathology models are increasingly being accepted for the assessment of disordered personalities, but their ability to predict negative outcomes is yet to be studied. We examine the relative clinical impact of seven basic dimensions of personality pathology through their associations with a wide range of clinical outcomes. METHODS: A sample of 960 outpatients was assessed through a 7-factor model integrating the Cloninger, the Livesley, and the DSM taxonomies...
November 2015: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Zahinoor Ismail, Eric E Smith, Yonas Geda, David Sultzer, Henry Brodaty, Gwenn Smith, Luis Agüera-Ortiz, Rob Sweet, David Miller, Constantine G Lyketsos
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common in dementia and in predementia syndromes such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). NPS in MCI confer a greater risk for conversion to dementia in comparison to MCI patients without NPS. NPS in older adults with normal cognition also confers a greater risk of cognitive decline in comparison to older adults without NPS. Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) has been proposed as a diagnostic construct aimed to identify patients with an increased risk of developing dementia, but who may or may not have cognitive symptoms...
February 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Ai Koyanagi, Andrew Stickley
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of sleep problems and their association with psychotic symptoms using a global database. DESIGN: Community-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data were analyzed from the World Health Organization's World Health Survey (WHS), a population-based survey conducted in 70 countries between 2002 and 2004. PATIENTS OR PARTICIPANTS: 261,547 individuals aged ≥ 18 years from 56 countries...
December 1, 2015: Sleep
Tivadar Lucza, Kázmér Karádi, János Kállai, Rita Weintraut, József Janszky, Attila Makkos, Sámuel Komoly, Norbert Kovács
INTRODUCTION: Among the nonmotor features of Parkinson's disease (PD), cognitive impairment is one of the most troublesome problems. New diagnostic criteria for mild and major neurocognitive disorder (NCD) in PD were established by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5). The aim of our study was to establish the diagnostic accuracy of widely used screening tests for NCD in PD. METHODS: Within the scope of our study we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of different neuropsychological tests (Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE), Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)) in 370 PD patients without depression...
2015: Behavioural Neurology
Susana de Sola, Rafael de la Torre, Gonzalo Sánchez-Benavides, Bessy Benejam, Aida Cuenca-Royo, Laura Del Hoyo, Joan Rodríguez, Silvina Catuara-Solarz, Judit Sanchez-Gutierrez, Ivan Dueñas-Espin, Gimena Hernandez, Jordi Peña-Casanova, Klaus Langohr, Sebastia Videla, Henry Blehaut, Magi Farre, Mara Dierssen
The recent prospect of pharmaceutical interventions for cognitive impairment of Down syndrome (DS) has boosted a number of clinical trials in this population. However, running the trials has raised some methodological challenges and questioned the prevailing methodology used to evaluate cognitive functioning of DS individuals. This is usually achieved by comparing DS individuals to matched healthy controls of the same mental age. We propose a new tool, the TESDAD Battery that uses comparison with age-matched typically developed adults...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
2015-06-22 00:10:53
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