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Jill M Newby, Anna McKinnon, Willem Kuyken, Simon Gilbody, Tim Dalgleish
A broad array of transdiagnostic psychological treatments for depressive and anxiety disorders have been evaluated, but existing reviews of this literature are restricted to face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) protocols. The current meta-analysis focused on studies evaluating clinician-guided internet/computerised or face-to-face manualised transdiagnostic treatments, to examine their effects on anxiety, depression and quality of life (QOL). Results from 50 studies showed that transdiagnostic treatments are efficacious, with large overall mean uncontrolled effects (pre- to post-treatment) for anxiety and depression (gs=...
August 2015: Clinical Psychology Review
Ann Marie Roepke, Martin E P Seligman
OBJECTIVES: Prospection, the mental representation of possible futures, is usually adaptive. When it goes awry, however, it disrupts emotion and motivation. A negative view of the future is typically seen as one symptom of depression, but we suggest that such negative prospection is the core causal element of depression. Here, we describe the empirical evidence supporting this framework, and we explore the implications for clinical interventions. METHODS: We integrate several literatures: Using the database PsycInfo, we retrieved empirical studies with the keywords prospection, prediction, expectation, pessimism, mental simulation, future-thinking, future-directed thinking, foresight, and/or mental time travel, in conjunction with depression, depressed, or depressive...
March 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Martin Underwood, Sarah E Lamb, Sandra Eldridge, Bart Sheehan, Anne-Marie Slowther, Anne Spencer, Margaret Thorogood, Nicky Atherton, Stephen A Bremner, Angela Devine, Karla Diaz-Ordaz, David R Ellard, Rachel Potter, Kathleen Spanjers, Stephanie J C Taylor
BACKGROUND: Depression is common and is associated with poor outcomes among elderly care-home residents. Exercise is a promising low-risk intervention for depression in this population. We tested the hypothesis that a moderate intensity exercise programme would reduce the burden of depressive symptoms in residents of care homes. METHODS: We did a cluster-randomised controlled trial in care homes in two regions in England; northeast London, and Coventry and Warwickshire...
July 6, 2013: Lancet
N N Ivanets, M A Kinkulkina, Yu G Tikhonova, T A Iziumina
OBJECTIVE: To find factors influencing the efficacy of venlafaxine in moderate and severe depressions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational study was carried out in real clinical practice. We examined 62 patients with depression, 21 men and 41 women, aged from 19 to 61 years, treated with venlafaxine. The duration of treatment was 84 days (first at the hospital and then at home). The initial dose was 75 mg daily, mean therapeutic dose 225 mg daily. Patient's status was assessed using clinical/psychological methods and psychometric scales (MADRS, Beck scale, CGI, UKU)...
2015: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Annamaria Cattaneo, Flavia Macchi, Giona Plazzotta, Begni Veronica, Luisella Bocchio-Chiavetto, Marco Andrea Riva, Carmine Maria Pariante
During the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in understanding and characterizing the role of inflammation in major depressive disorder (MDD). Indeed, several are the evidences linking alterations in the inflammatory system to Major Depression, including the presence of elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, together with other mediators of inflammation. However, it is still not clear whether inflammation represents a cause or whether other factors related to depression result in these immunological effects...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jihyung Hong, Diego Novick, William Montgomery, Jaume Aguado, Héctor Dueñas, Xiaomei Peng, Josep Maria Haro
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether painful physical symptoms (PPS) can be considered within the spectrum of depressive symptoms. METHODS: Data for this post-hoc analysis were taken from a 6-month observational study mostly conducted in East Asia, Mexico, and the Middle East of 1,549 depressed patients without sexual dysfunction at baseline. Both explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) were performed on the combined items of the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report and the Somatic Symptom Inventory (seven pain-related items only)...
2015: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Kelly J Rohan, Jennifer N Mahon, Maggie Evans, Sheau-Yan Ho, Jonah Meyerhoff, Teodor T Postolache, Pamela M Vacek
OBJECTIVE: Whereas considerable evidence supports light therapy for winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD), data on cognitive-behavioral therapy for SAD (CBT-SAD) are promising but preliminary. This study estimated the difference between CBT-SAD and light therapy outcomes in a large, more definitive test. METHOD: The participants were 177 adults with a current episode of major depression that was recurrent with a seasonal pattern. The randomized clinical trial compared 6 weeks of CBT-SAD (N=88) and light therapy (N=89)...
September 1, 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
Sophia Wang, Dan G Blazer
This review provides an overview of the relationship between depression and cognition in the elderly, with an emphasis on psychotherapies and nonpharmacologic approaches. We first review the clinical presentation of late-life depression and comorbid cognitive impairment, as well as the epidemiology and risk factors for cognitive impairment in late-life depression and the temporal relationship between depression and cognitive impairment. Next, we discuss the salient topic of elderly suicide and cognitive impairment...
2015: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
K Kumar, M Gupta
OBJECTIVES: Depressive disorders are one of the leading components of the global burden of disease with a prevalence of up to 14% in the general population. Numerous studies have demonstrated that pharmacotherapy combined with non-pharmacological measures offer the best treatment approach. Psycho-education as an intervention has been studied mostly in disorders such as schizophrenia and dementia, less so in depressive disorders. The present study aimed to assess the impact of psycho-education of patients and their caregivers on the outcome of depression...
March 2015: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
Bruce A Arnow, Christine Blasey, Leanne M Williams, Donna M Palmer, William Rekshan, Alan F Schatzberg, Amit Etkin, Jayashri Kulkarni, James F Luther, A John Rush
OBJECTIVE: The study aims were 1) to describe the proportions of individuals who met criteria for melancholic, atypical, and anxious depressive subtypes, as well as subtype combinations, in a large sample of depressed outpatients, and 2) to compare subtype profiles on remission and change in depressive symptoms after acute treatment with one of three antidepressant medications. METHOD: Participants 18-65 years of age (N=1,008) who met criteria for major depressive disorder were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of treatment with escitalopram, sertraline, or extended-release venlafaxine...
August 1, 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
J Craig Nelson, George I Papakostas
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine by meta-analysis the efficacy and tolerability of adjunctive atypical antipsychotic agents in major depressive disorder. METHOD: Searches were conducted of MEDLINE/PubMed (1966 to January 2009), the Cochrane database, abstracts of major psychiatric meetings since 2000, and online trial registries. Manufacturers of atypical antipsychotic agents without online registries were contacted. Trials selected were acute-phase, parallel-group, double-blind controlled trials with random assignment to adjunctive atypical antipsychotic or placebo...
September 2009: American Journal of Psychiatry
Gerald Gartlehner, Bradley N Gaynes, Richard A Hansen, Patricia Thieda, Angela DeVeaugh-Geiss, Erin E Krebs, Charity G Moore, Laura Morgan, Kathleen N Lohr
BACKGROUND: Second-generation antidepressants dominate the management of major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and subsyndromal depression. Evidence on the comparative benefits and harms is still accruing. PURPOSE: To compare the benefits and harms of second-generation antidepressants (bupropion, citalopram, duloxetine, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, mirtazapine, nefazodone, paroxetine, sertraline, trazodone, and venlafaxine) for the treatment of depressive disorders in adults...
November 18, 2008: Annals of Internal Medicine
Roselinde H Kaiser, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Tor D Wager, Diego A Pizzagalli
IMPORTANCE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been linked to imbalanced communication among large-scale brain networks, as reflected by abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). However, given variable methods and results across studies, identifying consistent patterns of network dysfunction in MDD has been elusive. OBJECTIVE: To investigate network dysfunction in MDD through a meta-analysis of rsFC studies. DATA SOURCES: Seed-based voxelwise rsFC studies comparing individuals with MDD with healthy controls (published before June 30, 2014) were retrieved from electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE) and authors contacted for additional data...
June 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
Julie A Dumas, Paul A Newhouse
OBJECTIVE: Older adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience poor cognitive and behavioral outcomes as MDD occurs in the context of other age-related brain changes. Patients with depression often have impairments on measures of frontal lobe functioning such as working memory. Understanding the effects of depression on cognitive functioning in older adults is important for the development of treatment strategies that focus on cognitive changes as well as mood. METHODS: Eleven older adults with current MDD and 12 nondepressed comparison participants (all aged 60 years and older) performed the N-back test of working memory during fMRI...
April 2015: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Sonja L Rosen, David B Reuben
In addition to medical diseases, psychological, social, cognitive, and functional issues influence the health of older persons. Therefore, the traditional medical assessment alone is often not enough to evaluate the older population with multiple comorbidities. Out of this recognized need, the geriatric assessment has been developed, which emphasizes a broader approach to evaluating contributors to health in older persons. Geriatric assessment uses specific tools to help determine patient's status across several different dimensions, including assessment of medical, cognitive, affective, social, economic, environmental, spiritual, and functional status...
July 2011: Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, New York
Samantha D Outcalt, Kurt Kroenke, Erin E Krebs, Neale R Chumbler, Jingwei Wu, Zhangsheng Yu, Matthew J Bair
Both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are highly comorbid with chronic pain and have deleterious effects on pain and treatment outcomes, but the nature of the relationships among chronic pain, PTSD, and depression has not been fully elucidated. This study examined 250 Veterans Affairs primary care patients with moderate to severe chronic musculoskeletal pain who participated in a randomized controlled pain treatment trial. Baseline data were analyzed to examine the independent associations of PTSD and major depression with multiple domains of pain, psychological status, quality of life, and disability...
June 2015: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Harm J Gijsman, John R Geddes, Jennifer M Rendell, Willem A Nolen, Guy M Goodwin
OBJECTIVE: This study reviewed the evidence from randomized, controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of antidepressants in the short-term treatment of bipolar depression. METHOD: The authors performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. They searched the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety, and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register, incorporating results of searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, PSYNDEX, and LILACS...
September 2004: American Journal of Psychiatry
A Gabriel
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of novel antipsychotics in the treatment of psychotic depression. METHOD: Consecutive patients who were admitted (n = 51) with a confirmed diagnosis of major depression with psychotic features (delusions or hallucinations or both) participated in this open-label, naturalistic study. All patients were treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (citalopram or venlafaxine extended release [XR]), and atypical antipsychotic agents were added, as tolerated, during the first week of initiating the citalopram or venlafaxine...
2013: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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