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Kimberly C Paul, Chenxiao Ling, Anne Lee, Tu My To, Myles Cockburn, Mary Haan, Beate Ritz
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a major health concern among older Mexican Americans, associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and may be influenced by environmental exposures. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether agricultural based ambient organophosphorus (OP) exposure influences 1) the rate of cognitive decline and mortality and 2) whether these associations are mediated through metabolic or inflammatory biomarkers. METHODS: In a subset of older Mexican Americans from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (n = 430), who completed modified mini-mental state exams (3MSE) up to 7 times (1998-2007), we examined the relationship between estimated ambient OP exposures and cognitive decline (linear repeated measures model) and time to dementia or being cognitively impaired but not demented (CIND) and time to mortality (cox proportional hazards model)...
January 2018: Environmental Research
C S Hakkers, A J M Beunders, M H M Ensing, R E Barth, S Boelema, W L J Devillé, H A Tempelman, R A Coutinho, A I M Hoepelman, J E Arends, M J E van Zandvoort
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are frequently occurring comorbidities in HIV-positive patients, diagnosed by means of a neuropsychological assessment (NPA). Due to the magnitude of the HIV-positive population in Sub-Saharan Africa, easy-to-use cognitive screening tools are essential. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional clinical trial involving 44 HIV-positive patients (on stable cART) and 73 HIV-negative controls completing an NPA, the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), and a culturally appropriate cognitive screening tool, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Basic (MoCA-B)...
February 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Megan A Todd
Inflammation has been linked to clinical cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease. Less is known, however, about the relationship between inflammation and normal, age-associated cognitive decline. An understanding of the determinants of all types of cognitive decline is important for improving quality of life in an aging world. This study investigated whether biomarkers of inflammation were associated with cognitive function and decline in older Taiwanese adults. Data were from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study of Aging and the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
Andrea Bosco, Giuseppina Spano, Alessandro O Caffò, Antonella Lopez, Ignazio Grattagliano, Giuseppe Saracino, Katia Pinto, Frans Hoogeveen, Giulio E Lancioni
Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) is a test providing a brief screening for people with cognitive impairment due to aging or neurodegenerative syndromes. In Italy, as in the rest of the world, several validation studies of MoCA have been carried out. This study compared, for the first time in Italy, a sample of people with probable Alzheimer's Disease (AD) with healthy counterparts. The study also compared two community-dwelling groups of aged participants with and without probable cognitive impairment, as discriminated by two cut-off points of adjusted MMSE score...
December 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Dina Lo Giudice, Kate Smith, Stephen Fenner, Zoë Hyde, David Atkinson, Linda Skeaf, Roslyn Malay, Leon Flicker
INTRODUCTION: Aboriginal Australians are reported to develop dementia earlier than the general population. The causes remain unknown. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study of 363 participants aged ≥45 years. Consensus diagnoses were established for cognitive impairment or dementia. RESULTS: At follow-up, 189 people (mean ± standard deviation age, 65.4 ± 10.3 years) participated, as 109 (30%) had died and 65 (18%) were unavailable...
March 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Stella-Maria Paddick, William K Gray, Luqman Ogunjimi, Bingileki Lwezuala, Olaide Olakehinde, Aloyce Kisoli, John Kissima, Godfrey Mbowe, Sarah Mkenda, Catherine L Dotchin, Richard W Walker, Declare Mushi, Cecilia Collingwood, Adesola Ogunniyi
BACKGROUND: We have previously described the development of the Identification and Intervention for Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA) cognitive screen for use in populations with low levels of formal education. The IDEA cognitive screen was developed and field-tested in an elderly, community-based population in rural Tanzania with a relatively high prevalence of cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to validate the IDEA cognitive screen as an assessment of major cognitive impairment in hospital settings in Nigeria and Tanzania...
2015: BMC Geriatrics
Kun-Pei Lin, Yi-Chun Chou, Jen-Hau Chen, Chi-Dan Chen, Sheng-Ying Yang, Ta-Fu Chen, Yu Sun, Li-Li Wen, Ping-Keung Yip, Yi-Min Chu, Yen-Ching Chen
INTRODUCTION: Religious affiliations vary across ethnic groups because of different cultural backgrounds. Some studies have explored the association between religious affiliation and cognitive decline. Only a small portion of patients with cognitive decline progress to dementia. However, the association between religious affiliation and dementia risk remains unclear. METHODS: In this case-control study, we recruited 280 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 138 with vascular dementia (VaD) (both aged ≥60 years) from three teaching hospitals in northern Taiwan between 2007 and 2010...
May 2015: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Ruud A Jongedijk
Narrative exposure therapy (NET) is a recently developed, short-term treatment for patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of multiple trauma. NET can be applied very successfully in patients with complex trauma complaints (Jongedijk, 2014; Schauer, Neuner, & Elbert, 2011). An important feature of NET is that trauma processing is never an isolated event but is always embedded in the context of a traumatic event and in the life history as a whole. At the start, the lifeline is laid. The lifeline is made up of a rope, with flowers (happy events), stones (traumatic events), sometimes candles (grief), or recently also sticks for aggressive acts (NET for offenders; see Stenmark, Cuneyt Guzey, Elbert, & Holen, 2014)...
2014: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Kinga E Fodor, Joanna Pozen, Joseph Ntaganira, Vincent Sezibera, Richard Neugebauer
The factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Euro-American populations has been extensively studied, but confirmatory factor analytic studies from non-Western societies are lacking. Alternative models of DSM-IV symptoms were tested among Rwandan adults (N=465) who experienced trauma during the 1994 genocide. A cluster random survey was conducted with interviews held in Rwandan households. PTSD was assessed with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian version. Competing models were the DSM-IV, emotional numbing, dysphoria, aroused intrusion, and dysphoric arousal models...
May 2015: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Dinu-Stefan Teodorescu, Trond Heir, Johan Siqveland, Edvard Hauff, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Lars Lien
BACKGROUND: Traumatized refugees often report significant levels of chronic pain in addition to posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and more information is needed to understand pain in refugees exposed to traumatic events. This study aimed to assess the frequency of chronic pain among refugee psychiatric outpatients, and to compare outpatients with and without chronic pain on trauma exposure, psychiatric morbidity, and psychiatric symptom severity. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of sixty-one psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background using structured clinical diagnostic interviews to assess for traumatic events [Life Events Checklist (LEC)], PTSD (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder) and complex PTSD [Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV PTSD Module (SCID-PTSD) and Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress (SIDES)], chronic pain (SIDES Scale VI) and psychiatric symptoms [M...
2015: BMC Psychology
Judith K Bass, Jeannie Annan, Sarah McIvor Murray, Debra Kaysen, Shelly Griffiths, Talita Cetinoglu, Karin Wachter, Laura K Murray, Paul A Bolton
BACKGROUND: Survivors of sexual violence have high rates of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although treatment for symptoms related to sexual violence has been shown to be effective in high-income countries, evidence is lacking in low-income, conflict-affected countries. METHODS: In this trial in the Democratic Republic of Congo, we randomly assigned 16 villages to provide cognitive processing therapy (1 individual session and 11 group sessions) or individual support to female sexual-violence survivors with high levels of PTSD symptoms and combined depression and anxiety symptoms...
June 6, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
N C Aghukwa
OBJECTIVE: Teachers as role models stand in a unique position in the formation of their pupils' set values about mental health issues. The aim of this study therefore was to determine the attitude of teachers to mental illness. METHOD: The questionnaire for the study was a drafted modified self-administered one, distributed among a randomly selected sample of teachers in the area of study. RESULTS: A significant number of teachers would not want to interact with former mentally ill persons in close social situations and many of them felt such people were unpredictable...
February 2009: African Journal of Psychiatry
D L Mkize
OBJECTIVE: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a diagnostic category used to describe symptoms arising from emotionally traumatic experience(s). Research suggests that PTSD may be under- diagnosed when trauma is not the presenting problem or when not the focus of clinical intervention. There is a dearth of South African information on the prevalence of PTSD in a psychiatric population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and comorbidity of PTSD in a psychiatric population, not presenting on the basis of trauma...
February 2008: African Journal of Psychiatry
J Okello, T S Onen, S Musisi
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the nature and patterns of psychiatric disorders among adolescents who had been war-abducted in the war in northern Uganda, compared to non-abducted adolescents living in Gulu district, Uganda. METHOD: A cros sectional study that used an unmatched case-control design compared 82 abducted and 71 non-abducted adolescents for scores on measures of psychological distress and for selected psychiatric diagnoses using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Mini International Neural-Psychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents English version 2...
November 2007: African Journal of Psychiatry
A M Osman, Y Elkordufani, M A Abdullah
OBJECTIVE: Vitiligo is a chronic skin disease that causes loss of pigment, resulting in irregular pale patches of skin. The disease has profound psychological consequences. These effects range from mild embarrassment to a severe loss of self-confidence and social anxiety, especially for those who have lesions on exposed skin. The study sought to determine the psychological impact of vitiligo in Sudanese patients. METHOD: This study is a cross-sectional, clinical-epidemiological and hospital-based study, undertaken in Khartoum Dermatologic Hospital (KDH)...
November 2009: African Journal of Psychiatry
A Kapungwe, S Cooper, J Mwanza, L Mwape, A Sikwese, R Kakuma, C Lund, A J Flisher
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the presence, causes and means of addressing individual and systemic stigma and discrimination against people with mental illness in Zambia. This is to facilitate the development of tailor-made antistigma initiatives that are culturally sensitive for Zambia and other low-income African countries. This is the first in-depth study on mental illness stigma in Zambia. METHOD: Fifty semi-structured interviews and 6 focus group discussions were conducted with key stakeholders drawn from 3 districts in Zambia (Lusaka, Kabwe and Sinazongwe)...
July 2010: African Journal of Psychiatry
A Kapungwe, S Cooper, J Mayeya, J Mwanza, L Mwape, A Sikwese, C Lund
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore health care providers' attitudes towards people with mental illness within two districts in Zambia. It sought to document types of attitudes of primary health care providers towards people suffering from mental illness and possible predictors of such attitudes. This study offers insights into how health care providers regard people with mental illness that may be helpful in designing appropriate training or re-training programs in Zambia and other low-income African countries...
September 2011: African Journal of Psychiatry
G Amoo, R O Akinyemi, L U Onofa, J O Akinyemi, O Baiyewu, A O Ogunlesi, A Ogunniyi
OBJECTIVE: Many subjects with dementia present primarily to neuropsychiatric practices because of behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD). This study reviewed the profile of clinically-diagnosed dementias and BPSD seen in a pioneer neuropsychiatric practice in Abeokuta, southwestern Nigeria over a ten year period (January1998 - December 2007). METHODS: A review of hospital records of all patients with diagnoses of dementia or dementing illness using the ICD-10 criteria as well as specific diagnostic criteria for different dementia phenotypes...
November 2011: African Journal of Psychiatry
L Onofa, A A Fatiregun, O I Fawole, T Adebowale
OBJECTIVE: Vagrant mentally ill patients are a highly marginalized group that receive limited care and attention from society. There is a dearth of information on the clinical status of this group in low-income countries. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical profiles and treatment outcomes between vagrant and non-vagrant mentally ill patients admitted to Aro Psychiatric Hospital, Abeokuta, Nigeria. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective review of clinical records charting vagrant and non-vagrant mentally ill patients treated over a five year period from January 2004 to December 2008...
May 2012: African Journal of Psychiatry
M O Bakare
OBJECTIVE: To review literature from Africa on the epidemiology of ADHD as well attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and associated co-morbid conditions among African children. METHOD: A literature search was done through Pubmed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar using then following terms, "attention deficit", "hyperactivity disorders", "epidemiology", "co-morbid conditions", "Africa". Nine studies met the inclusion criteria with four studies coming from South Africa, two each from Democratic Republic of Congo and Nigeria respectively and one from Ethiopia...
September 2012: African Journal of Psychiatry
2015-03-21 21:03:22
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