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Blast neurotrauma

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5 papers 0 to 25 followers
Jasmeet P Hayes, Danielle R Miller, Ginette Lafleche, David H Salat, Mieke Verfaellie
Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a common injury among returning troops due to the widespread use of improvised explosive devices in the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. As most of the TBIs sustained are in the mild range, brain changes may not be detected by standard clinical imaging techniques such as CT. Furthermore, the functional significance of these types of injuries is currently being debated. However, accumulating evidence suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to subtle white matter abnormalities and may be especially useful in detecting mild TBI (mTBI)...
2015: NeuroImage: Clinical
Ann C McKee, Meghan E Robinson
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) includes concussion, subconcussion, and most exposures to explosive blast from improvised explosive devices. mTBI is the most common traumatic brain injury affecting military personnel; however, it is the most difficult to diagnose and the least well understood. It is also recognized that some mTBIs have persistent, and sometimes progressive, long-term debilitating effects. Increasing evidence suggests that a single traumatic brain injury can produce long-term gray and white matter atrophy, precipitate or accelerate age-related neurodegeneration, and increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and motor neuron disease...
June 2014: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Nihal C de Lanerolle, Hamada Hamid, Joseph Kulas, Jullie W Pan, Rebecca Czlapinski, Anthony Rinaldi, Geoffrey Ling, Faris A Bandak, Hoby P Hetherington
OBJECTIVE: Explosive blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is associated with a variety of symptoms including memory impairment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Explosive shock waves can cause hippocampal injury in a large animal model. We recently reported a method for detecting brain injury in soldiers with explosive blast mTBI using magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). This method is applied in the study of veterans exposed to blast. METHODS: The hippocampus of 25 veterans with explosive blast mTBI, 20 controls, and 12 subjects with PTSD but without exposure to explosive blast were studied using MRSI at 7 Tesla...
September 2014: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Lai Yee Leung, Pamela J VandeVord, Alessandra Leonardi Dal Cengio, Cynthia Bir, King H Yang, Albert I King
Historically, blast overpressure is known to affect primarily gas-containing organs such as the lung and ear. More recent interests focus on its ability to cause damage to solid organs such as the brain, resulting in neurological disorders. Returning veterans exposed to blast but without external injuries are being diagnosed with mild traumatic brain injury (Warden 2006) and with cortical dysfunction (Cernak et al 1999). Decades of studies have been conducted to elucidate the effects of primary blast wave on the central nervous system...
September 2008: Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics: MCB
Ibolja Cernak, Linda J Noble-Haeusslein
This review considers the pathobiology of non-impact blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT). The pathobiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been historically studied in experimental models mimicking features seen in the civilian population. These brain injuries are characterized by primary damage to both gray and white matter and subsequent evolution of secondary pathogenic events at the cellular, biochemical, and molecular levels, which collectively mediate widespread neurodegeneration. An emerging field of research addresses brain injuries related to the military, in particular blast-induced brain injuries...
February 2010: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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