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By Masoud Ahmadzad-Asl Assistant professor of psychiatry, Iran university of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Chittaranjan Andrade
There are no randomized controlled trials of antidepressant drugs to treat depression, or to prevent relapse into depression, during pregnancy; therefore, the safety of antidepressant drug exposure during pregnancy is based on evidence from case-control or cohort studies. Many of these observational studies, during the past decade, examined the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in exposed offspring. Different studies using different methods and examining different periods of antidepressant exposure before and during pregnancy obtained different results...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Dimitra Chalkia, Larry N Singh, Jeremy Leipzig, Maria Lvova, Olga Derbeneva, Anita Lakatos, Dexter Hadley, Hakon Hakonarson, Douglas C Wallace
Importance: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, and repetitive or restrictive behavior. Although multiple physiologic and biochemical studies have reported defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in patients with ASD, the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation has remained relatively unexplored. Objective: To assess what impact mitochondrial lineages encompassing ancient mtDNA functional polymorphisms, termed haplogroups, have on ASD risk...
November 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
John N Constantino, Natasha Marrus
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders whose core features of impaired social communication and atypical repetitive behaviors and/or restrictions in range of interests emerge in toddlerhood and carry significant implications at successive stages of development. The ability to reliably identify most cases of the condition far earlier than the average age of diagnosis presents a novel opportunity for early intervention, but the availability of such an intervention is disparate across US communities, and its impact is imperfectly understood...
July 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Abi Bangerter, Seth Ness, Michael G Aman, Anna J Esbensen, Matthew S Goodwin, Geraldine Dawson, Robert Hendren, Bennett Leventhal, Anzalee Khan, Mark Opler, Adrianne Harris, Gahan Pandina
OBJECTIVE: Autism Behavior Inventory (ABI) is a new measure for assessing changes in core and associated symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in participants (ages: 3 years-adulthood) diagnosed with ASD. It is a web-based tool with five domains (two ASD core domains: social communication, restrictive and repetitive behaviors; three associated domains: mental health, self-regulation, and challenging behavior). This study describes design, development, and initial psychometric properties of the ABI...
November 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Renata Solimini, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Simona Pichini, Roberta Pacifici
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Medical cannabis is increasingly used as a treatment or adjunct treatment with different levels of efficacy in several neurological disorders or related symptoms (such as multiple sclerosis, autism, Parkinson and Alzheimer disease, Tourette's syndrome, Huntington's disease, neuropathic pain, epilepsy, headache), as well as in other medical conditions (e.g. nausea and vomiting, glaucoma, appetite stimulation, cancer, inflammatory conditions, asthma). Nevertheless, a number of neurological adverse effects from use of medical cannabis on the short- and on the longterm have been reported, in addition to other adverse health events...
2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Allison Beck Blackmer, James A Feinstein
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are defined as a group of disorders caused by changes in early brain development, resulting in behavioral and cognitive alterations in sensory and motor systems, speech, and language. NDDs affect approximately 1-2% of the general population. Up to 80% of children with NDDs are reported to have disrupted sleep; subsequent deleterious effects on daytime behaviors, cognition, growth, and overall development of the child are commonly reported. Examples of NDDs discussed in this review include autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, Rett syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Williams syndrome, and Smith-Magenis syndrome...
January 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Darren Hedley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Ralph G Walton, Woodrow C Monte
The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses...
October 2015: Medical Hypotheses
Tiraya Lerthattasilp, Thammanard Charernboon, Issarapa Chunsuwan, Panida Siriumpunkul
OBJECTIVE: To study depression prevalence and burden among caregivers of children with autistic spectrum disorder and the related factors. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. Measures included questionnaires, CES-D and burden interview. Patients' diagnoses andfunctions were obtainedfrom childpsychiatrists and developmental pediatricians responsible for the patients. RESULTS: There were 51 participants. The depression prevalence was 5...
March 2015: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Sophie Tessier, Andréane Lambert, Peter Scherzer, Boutheina Jemel, Roger Godbout
Relationship between REM sleep and memory was assessed in 13 neurotypical and 13 children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A neutral/positive/negative face recognition task was administered the evening before (learning and immediate recognition) and the morning after (delayed recognition) sleep. The number of rapid eye movements (REMs), beta and theta EEG activity over the visual areas were measured during REM sleep. Compared to neurotypical children, children with ASD showed more theta activity and longer reaction time (RT) for correct responses in delayed recognition of neutral faces...
September 2015: Biological Psychology
Karen Frankel Heffler, Leonard M Oestreicher
Earliest identifiable findings in autism indicate that the autistic brain develops differently from the typical brain in the first year of life, after a period of typical development. Twin studies suggest that autism has an environmental component contributing to causation. Increased availability of audiovisual (AV) materials and viewing practices of infants parallel the time frame of the rise in prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies have shown an association between ASD and increased TV/cable screen exposure in infancy, suggesting AV exposure in infancy as a possible contributing cause of ASD...
June 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Abbas Heidary, Laleh Hosseini Shahidi, Ali Mohammadpuor
INTRODUCTION: Helping mothers who have children with autism spectrum disorders requires understanding of their lived experiences. This study aims to uncover the spiritual journey as a main theme in Iranian mothers' experiences. METHOD: This hermeneutic phenomenological study is a part of a larger study undertaken for partial fulfillment of the requirement for PhD dissertation in nursing. The main study was performed on 18 cases of Iranian mothers, with experience of caring for a child with an autism spectrum during 2011-2012...
March 30, 2015: Global Journal of Health Science
Sven Sandin, Paul Lichtenstein, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Henrik Larsson, Christina M Hultman, Abraham Reichenberg
IMPORTANCE: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aggregates in families, but the individual risk and to what extent this is caused by genetic factors or shared or nonshared environmental factors remains unresolved. OBJECTIVE: To provide estimates of familial aggregation and heritability of ASD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A population-based cohort including 2,049,973 Swedish children born 1982 through 2006. We identified 37,570 twin pairs, 2,642,064 full sibling pairs, 432,281 maternal and 445,531 paternal half sibling pairs, and 5,799,875 cousin pairs...
May 7, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Annette Estes, Jeffrey Munson, Sally J Rogers, Jessica Greenson, Jamie Winter, Geraldine Dawson
OBJECTIVE: We prospectively examined evidence for the sustained effects of early intervention based on a follow-up study of 39 children with ASD who began participation in a randomized clinical trial testing the effectiveness of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) at age 18 to 30 months. The intervention, conducted at a high level of intensity in-home for 2 years, showed evidence of efficacy immediately posttreatment. METHOD: This group of children was assessed at age 6 years, 2 years after the intervention ended, across multiple domains of functioning by clinicians naive to previous intervention group status...
July 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Charles A Nelson, Kandice J Varcin, Nicole K Coman, Immaculata De Vivo, Helen Tager-Flusberg
OBJECTIVE: Shortened telomeres have been linked to poorer health outcomes. Exposure to psychological stress is associated with accelerated telomere shortening, and a well-established body of evidence indicates that families with a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience heightened levels of psychological stress. Also, alterations in a number of biological processes implicated in telomere length dynamics (i.e., oxidative stress, DNA methylation) have been linked to ASD susceptibility...
July 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Eileen A Curran, Christina Dalman, Patricia M Kearney, Louise C Kenny, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan, Ali S Khashan
IMPORTANCE: Because the rates of cesarean section (CS) are increasing worldwide, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the long-term effects that mode of delivery may have on child development. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between obstetric mode of delivery and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Perinatal factors and ASD diagnoses based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9),and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10),were identified from the Swedish Medical Birth Register and the Swedish National Patient Register...
September 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
Michael G Aman, L Eugene Arnold, Jill A Hollway
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Shulamite A Green, Leanna Hernandez, Nim Tottenham, Kate Krasileva, Susan Y Bookheimer, Mirella Dapretto
IMPORTANCE: More than half of youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have sensory overresponsivity (SOR), an extreme negative reaction to sensory stimuli. However, little is known about the neurobiological basis of SOR, and there are few effective treatments. Understanding whether SOR is due to an initial heightened sensory response or to deficits in regulating emotional reactions to stimuli has important implications for intervention. OBJECTIVE: To determine differences in brain responses, habituation, and connectivity during exposure to mildly aversive sensory stimuli in youth with ASDs and SOR compared with youth with ASDs without SOR and compared with typically developing control subjects...
August 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
Junko Matsuo, Yoko Kamio, Hidetoshi Takahashi, Miho Ota, Toshiya Teraishi, Hiroaki Hori, Anna Nagashima, Reiko Takei, Teruhiko Higuchi, Nobutaka Motohashi, Hiroshi Kunugi
Autism spectrum disorder often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Although a high prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms has been identified in the pediatric psychiatric population of normal intelligence, there are no reports from adult psychiatric population. This study examined whether there is a greater prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms in patients with adult-onset psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and whether such an association is independent of symptom severity...
2015: PloS One
Marc Fakhoury
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of neurodevelopmental disorders that is among the most severe in terms of prevalence, morbidity and impact to the society. It is characterized by complex behavioral phenotype and deficits in both social and cognitive functions. Although the exact cause of ASD is still not known, the main findings emphasize the role of genetic and environmental factors in the development of autistic behavior. Environmental factors are also likely to interact with the genetic profile and cause aberrant changes in brain growth, neuronal development, and functional connectivity...
June 2015: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
2015-04-26 12:40:32
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