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Neurobiology of Anxiety

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5 papers 100 to 500 followers
By Abraham Nunes Psychiatry resident interested in computational neuroscience, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry.
Philip Tovote, Jonathan Paul Fadok, Andreas L├╝thi
Decades of research has identified the brain areas that are involved in fear, fear extinction, anxiety and related defensive behaviours. Newly developed genetic and viral tools, optogenetics and advanced in vivo imaging techniques have now made it possible to characterize the activity, connectivity and function of specific cell types within complex neuronal circuits. Recent findings that have been made using these tools and techniques have provided mechanistic insights into the exquisite organization of the circuitry underlying internal defensive states...
June 2015: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Michael Browning, Timothy E Behrens, Gerhard Jocham, Jill X O'Reilly, Sonia J Bishop
Statistical regularities in the causal structure of the environment enable us to predict the probable outcomes of our actions. Environments differ in the extent to which action-outcome contingencies are stable or volatile. Difficulty in being able to use this information to optimally update outcome predictions might contribute to the decision-making difficulties seen in anxiety. We tested this using an aversive learning task manipulating environmental volatility. Human participants low in trait anxiety matched updating of their outcome predictions to the volatility of the current environment, as predicted by a Bayesian model...
April 2015: Nature Neuroscience
David M Bannerman, Rolf Sprengel, David J Sanderson, Stephen B McHugh, J Nicholas P Rawlins, Hannah Monyer, Peter H Seeburg
Recent studies using transgenic mice lacking NMDA receptors in the hippocampus challenge the long-standing hypothesis that hippocampal long-term potentiation-like mechanisms underlie the encoding and storage of associative long-term spatial memories. However, it may not be the synaptic plasticity-dependent memory hypothesis that is wrong; instead, it may be the role of the hippocampus that needs to be re-examined. We present an account of hippocampal function that explains its role in both memory and anxiety...
March 2014: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Fabio C Cruz, Eisuke Koya, Danielle H Guez-Barber, Jennifer M Bossert, Carl R Lupica, Yavin Shaham, Bruce T Hope
Correlational data suggest that learned associations are encoded within neuronal ensembles. However, it has been difficult to prove that neuronal ensembles mediate learned behaviours because traditional pharmacological and lesion methods, and even newer cell type-specific methods, affect both activated and non-activated neurons. In addition, previous studies on synaptic and molecular alterations induced by learning did not distinguish between behaviourally activated and non-activated neurons. Here, we describe three new approaches--Daun02 inactivation, FACS sorting of activated neurons and Fos-GFP transgenic rats--that have been used to selectively target and study activated neuronal ensembles in models of conditioned drug effects and relapse...
November 2013: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Stephen Maren, K Luan Phan, Israel Liberzon
Contexts surround and imbue meaning to events; they are essential for recollecting the past, interpreting the present and anticipating the future. Indeed, the brain's capacity to contextualize information permits enormous cognitive and behavioural flexibility. Studies of Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction in rodents and humans suggest that a neural circuit including the hippocampus, amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex is involved in the learning and memory processes that enable context-dependent behaviour...
June 2013: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
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