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By Jason Mann No BS pulmonary critical care fellow
J Terrill Huggins
A chylothorax and a cholesterol pleural effusion represent the two forms of lipid effusions encountered. Traditionally, a lipid pleural effusion is characterized by the presence of milky fluid. Although these two effusions often share a similar pleural fluid appearance due to the high lipid concentration, they have major differences in the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, predisposing conditions, and management of these effusions. A chylothorax is defined by the presence of chyle in the pleural space resulting from obstruction or disruption of the thoracic duct or one of its major tributaries...
December 2010: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Vasileios Skouras, Ioannis Kalomenidis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review evaluates recent research findings and proposes an up-to-date diagnostic approach for patients with suspected chylothorax. RECENT FINDINGS: Typically, chylothorax is a milky exudate with high triglyceride content (>110 mg/dl). However, milky appearance is not always the case and triglyceride levels can be less than 110 mg/dl, especially in fasting or malnourished patients. Transudative chylothoraces have been reported when cirrhosis, nephrosis or heart failure co-exist...
July 2010: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Fabien Maldonado, Finn J Hawkins, Craig E Daniels, Clinton H Doerr, Paul A Decker, Jay H Ryu
OBJECTIVE: To determine the biochemical parameters of chylous pleural fluids and better inform current clinical practice in the diagnosis of chylothorax. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 74 patients with chylothorax (defined by the presence of chylomicrons) who underwent evaluation during a 10-year period from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2006. The biochemical parameters and appearance of the fluid assessed during diagnostic evaluation were analyzed...
February 2009: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Clinton H Doerr, Mark S Allen, Francis C Nichols, Jay H Ryu
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the etiology of chylothorax in patients encountered at a single tertiary referral center and to compare the findings with those from previous studies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical records of all patients with chylothorax seen at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn, over a 21-year period, from January 1, 1980, to December 31, 2000, were retrospectively reviewed to ascertain the underlying cause of their condition. RESULTS: We identified 203 patients with chylothorax; 92 were females (male-female ratio, 1...
July 2005: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Fabien Maldonado, Rodrigo Cartin-Ceba, Finn J Hawkins, Jay H Ryu
Chylothorax is an uncommon form of pleural effusion that can be associated with traumatic and nontraumatic causes. Optimal management and outcome for patients with chylothorax remain unclear. This retrospective single-center study assessed the modes of management for chylothorax in 74 adult patients (> or =18 years old) and associated outcomes. The role of lymphangiographic imaging was also evaluated. Initial treatment approach was nonsurgical in 57 patients (77%) but a surgical procedure (pleurodesis, thoracic duct ligation, and/or surgical repair) was eventually performed in 44 patients (59%)...
April 2010: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Bradley Bender, Vijayashree Murthy, Ronald S Chamberlain
Initial conservative therapy is applied to all cases of chylothorax (CTx) with expected excellent outcomes. The indication for aggressive surgical treatment of early CTx remains uncertain and requires rigorous scientific scrutiny. Lymphangiography and lymphoscintigraphy are useful to localize the leak and assess thoracic duct patency as well as to differentiate partial from complete thoracic duct transection. The aetiology of the CTx, flow rate and patient condition dictate the preferred management. Octreotide/somatostatin and etilefrine therapy is highly efficacious in the conservative management of CTx...
January 2016: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
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