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Miquel Ferrer, Antoni Torres
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF), with a critical review of the most recent literature in this setting. RECENT FINDINGS: The efficacy of NIV is variable depending on the cause of the episode of ARF. In community-acquired pneumonia, NIV is often associated with poor response, with better response in patients with preexisting cardiac or respiratory disease. In patients with pandemic influenza H1N1 and severe ARF, NIV has been associated with high failure rates but relatively favorable mortality...
February 2015: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Steve Goodacre, John W Stevens, Abdullah Pandor, Edith Poku, Shijie Ren, Anna Cantrell, Vincent Bounes, Arantxa Mas, Didier Payen, David Petrie, Markus Soeren Roessler, Gunther Weitz, Laurent Ducros, Patrick Plaisance
OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis aimed to determine the effectiveness of prehospital continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel inspiratory positive airway pressure (BiPAP) in acute respiratory failure. METHODS: Fourteen electronic databases and research registers were searched from inception to August 2013. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials that reported mortality or intubation rate for prehospital CPAP or BiPAP were selected and compared to a relevant comparator in patients with acute respiratory failure...
September 2014: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Lara Pisani, Stefano Nava
Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) improves gas exchange and clinical outcome in various types of acute respiratory failure. Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a frequent cause of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF). According to several randomized controlled trials, the addition of NIV to standard medical therapy reduces mortality, intubation rate, and hospital length of stay in these patients. Indications for the use of NIV have expanded over the past decade. In this article, we discuss the clinical indications and goals of NIV in the management of AHRF...
August 2014: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Laurent Brochard, Jean-Claude Lefebvre, Ricardo Luiz Cordioli, Evangelia Akoumianaki, Jean-Christophe M Richard
Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has an established efficacy to improve gas exchange and reduce the work of breathing in patients with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure. The clinical efficacy in terms of meaningful outcome is less clear and depends very much on patient selection and assessment of the risks of the technique. The potential risks include an insufficient reduction of the oxygen consumption of the respiratory muscles in case of shock, an excessive increase in tidal volume in case of lung injury, and a risk of delayed or emergent intubation...
August 2014: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Antonello Nicolini, Gianluca Ferraioli, Maura Ferrari-Bravo, Cornelius Barlascini, Mario Santo, Lorenzo Ferrera
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Severe community-acquired pneumonia (sCAP) have been as defined pneumonia requiring admission to the intensive care unit or carrying a high risk of death. Currently, the treatment of sCAP consists of antibiotic therapy and ventilator support. The use of invasive ventilation causes several complications as does admission to ICU. For this reason, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been used for acute respiratory failure to avoid endotracheal intubation. However, few studies have currently assessed the usefulness of NIV in sCAP...
January 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Michael Pallin, Matthew T Naughton
Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has well-recognized benefits in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary edema. Its utilization in acute asthma, however, remains controversial. In this review, we describe the physiological basis to justify NIV use in acute asthma and contribute a critical appraisal of the available literature relating to this practice. A discussion of some of the more pertinent, clinically relevant practicalities is also provided. Original research articles were identified using the electronic PubMed database...
August 2014: Journal of Critical Care
Ezgi Ozyilmaz, Aylin Ozsancak Ugurlu, Stefano Nava
BACKGROUND: Identifying the predictors of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) failure has attracted significant interest because of the strong link between failure and poor outcomes. However, very little attention has been paid to the timing of the failure. This narrative review focuses on the causes of NIV failure and risk factors and potential remedies for NIV failure, based on the timing factor. RESULTS: The possible causes of immediate failure (within minutes to <1 h) are a weak cough reflex, excessive secretions, hypercapnic encephalopathy, intolerance, agitation, and patient-ventilator asynchrony...
February 13, 2014: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Sameer Mal, Shelley McLeod, Alla Iansavichene, Adam Dukelow, Michael Lewell
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is increasingly being used by emergency medical services (EMS) for treatment of patients in respiratory distress. The primary objective of this systematic review is to determine whether out-of-hospital NIPPV for treatment of adults with severe respiratory distress reduces inhospital mortality compared with "standard" therapy. Secondary objectives are to examine the need for invasive ventilation, hospital and ICU length of stay, and complications...
May 2014: Annals of Emergency Medicine
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