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Carina Soares-Cunha, Barbara Coimbra, Ana David-Pereira, Sonia Borges, Luisa Pinto, Patricio Costa, Nuno Sousa, Ana J Rodrigues
Striatal dopamine receptor D1-expressing neurons have been classically associated with positive reinforcement and reward, whereas D2 neurons are associated with negative reinforcement and aversion. Here we demonstrate that the pattern of activation of D1 and D2 neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) predicts motivational drive, and that optogenetic activation of either neuronal population enhances motivation in mice. Using a different approach in rats, we further show that activating NAc D2 neurons increases cue-induced motivational drive in control animals and in a model that presents anhedonia and motivational deficits; conversely, optogenetic inhibition of D2 neurons decreases motivation...
June 23, 2016: Nature Communications
Bote G Bruinsma, Korkut Uygun, Martin L Yarmush, Nima Saeidi
Bariatric surgery is the only definitive solution currently available for the present obesity pandemic. These operations typically involve reconfiguration of gastrointestinal tract anatomy and impose profound metabolic and physiological benefits, such as substantially reducing body weight and ameliorating type II diabetes. Therefore, animal models of these surgeries offer unique and exciting opportunities to delineate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the resolution of obesity and diabetes. Here we describe a standardized procedure for mouse and rat models of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (80-90 min operative time) and sleeve gastrectomy (30-45 min operative time), which, to a high degree, resembles operations in humans...
March 2015: Nature Protocols
Yann Pelloux, Jean Costentin, Dominique Duterte-Boucher
RATIONALE: Drug addiction is defined as a recurring cycle of intoxication, abstinence and relapse. The behavioural trait of novelty seeking is frequently observed in alcohol abusers. Moreover, converging evidence indicates that anxious individuals are also predisposed to alcohol abuse. OBJECTIVES: We have analyzed the respective implication of those two behavioural factors on vulnerability to ethanol intake on rats in situations designed to reflect drug intoxication and relapse phases in humans...
August 2015: Psychopharmacology
E Augier, M Flanigan, R S Dulman, A Pincus, J R Schank, K C Rice, C Kejun, M Heilig, J D Tapocik
RATIONALE: Operant self-administration (SA) is an important model of motivation to consume ethanol (EtOH), but low rates of voluntary consumption in rats are thought to necessitate water deprivation and saccharin/sucrose fading for acquisition of responding. OBJECTIVES: Here, we sought to devise an effective model of SA that does not use water deprivation or saccharin/sucrose fading. METHODS: First, we tested if Wistar rats would acquire and maintain SA behavior of 20 % EtOH under two conditions, water deprivation (WD) and non-water deprivation (NWD)...
December 2014: Psychopharmacology
Sebastien Carnicella, Quinn V Yowell, Dorit Ron
BACKGROUND: Oral ethanol self-administration procedures in rats are useful preclinical tools for the evaluation of potential new pharmacotherapies as well as for the investigation into the etiology of alcohol abuse disorders and addiction. Determination of the effects of a potential treatment on a full ethanol dose-response curve should be essential to predict its clinical efficacy. Unfortunately, this approach has not been fully explored because of the aversive taste reaction to moderate to high doses of ethanol, which may interfere with consumption...
January 2011: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Agnieszka Korkosz, Anna Scinska, Artur Rogowski, Pawel Mierzejewski, Wojciech Kostowski, Andrzej Kukwa, Przemyslaw Bienkowski
In experimental conditions, it has been suggested that taste factors may contribute to ethanol preference in rodents. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of transection of a gustatory branch of the seventh cranial nerve, the chorda tympani (CT), on operant self-administration of ethanol in rats. Male Wistar rats were trained to lever press for 8% [volume/volume (vol./vol.)] ethanol solution. When 8% ethanol intake stabilized, the CT nerve was transected bilaterally in six subjects. Another group received sham operations...
July 2003: Alcohol
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