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Autism Spectrum Disorders

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13 papers 100 to 500 followers
By Abraham Nunes Psychiatry resident interested in computational neuroscience, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry.
Catherine Lord, Mayada Elsabbagh, Gillian Baird, Jeremy Veenstra-Vanderweele
Autism spectrum disorder is a term used to describe a constellation of early-appearing social communication deficits and repetitive sensory-motor behaviours associated with a strong genetic component as well as other causes. The outlook for many individuals with autism spectrum disorder today is brighter than it was 50 years ago; more people with the condition are able to speak, read, and live in the community rather than in institutions, and some will be largely free from symptoms of the disorder by adulthood...
August 11, 2018: Lancet
Mayada Elsabbagh, Mark H Johnson
The atypical features of social perception and cognition observed in individuals with a diagnosis of autism have been explained in two different ways. First, domain-specific accounts are based on the assumption that these end-state symptoms result from specific impairments within component structures of the social brain network. Second, domain-general accounts hypothesize that rather than being localized, atypical brain structure and function are widespread, or hypothesize that the apparent social brain differences are the consequence of adaptations to earlier occurring widespread changes in brain function...
July 15, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Adam J Guastella, Ian B Hickie
Observed impairment in reciprocal social interaction is a diagnostic hallmark of autism spectrum disorders. There is no effective medical treatment for these problems. Psychological treatments remain costly, time intensive, and developmentally sensitive for efficacy. In this review, we explore the potential of oxytocin-based therapies for social impairments in autism. Evidence shows that acute oxytocin administration improves numerous markers critical to the social circuitry underlying social deficits in autism...
February 1, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Yehezkel Ben-Ari
Birth is associated with a neuroprotective, oxytocin-mediated abrupt excitatory-to-inhibitory GABA shift that is abolished in autism, and its restoration attenuates the disorder in offspring. In this Opinion article, I discuss the links between birth-related stressful mechanisms, persistent excitatory GABA actions, perturbed network oscillations and autism. I propose that birth (parturition) is a critical period that confirms, attenuates or aggravates the deleterious effects of intrauterine genetic or environmental insults...
August 2015: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
William M Brandler, Jonathan Sebat
The high heritability, early age at onset, and reproductive disadvantages of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are consistent with an etiology composed of dominant-acting de novo (spontaneous) mutations. Mutation detection by microarray analysis and DNA sequencing has confirmed that de novo copy-number variants or point mutations in protein-coding regions of genes contribute to risk, and some of the underlying causal variants and genes have been identified. As our understanding of autism genes develops, the spectrum of autism is breaking up into quanta of many different genetic disorders...
2015: Annual Review of Medicine
Anne Kästner, Martin Begemann, Tanja Maria Michel, Sarah Everts, Beata Stepniak, Christiane Bach, Luise Poustka, Joachim Becker, Tobias Banaschewski, Matthias Dose, Hannelore Ehrenreich
BACKGROUND: Behavioral phenotypical continua from health to disease suggest common underlying mechanisms with quantitative rather than qualitative differences. Until recently, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia were considered distinct nosologic entities. However, emerging evidence contributes to the blurring of symptomatic and genetic boundaries between these conditions. The present study aimed at quantifying behavioral phenotypes shared by autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia to prepare the ground for biological pathway analyses...
May 13, 2015: BMC Psychiatry
Meng-Chuan Lai, Michael V Lombardo, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Simon Baron-Cohen
DSM-5 has moved autism from the level of subgroups ("apples and oranges") to the prototypical level ("fruit"). But making progress in research, and ultimately improving clinical practice, will require identifying subgroups within the autism spectrum.
2013: PLoS Biology
M Parellada, M J Penzol, L Pina, C Moreno, E González-Vioque, G Zalsman, C Arango
Data is progressively and robustly accumulating regarding the biological basis of autism. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are currently considered a group of neurodevelopmental disorders with onset very early in life and a complex, heterogeneous, multifactorial aetiology. A comprehensive search of the last five years of the Medline database was conducted in order to summarize recent evidence on the neurobiological bases of autism. The main findings on genetic influence, neuropathology, neurostructure and brain networks are summarized...
January 2014: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Emma Colvert, Beata Tick, Fiona McEwen, Catherine Stewart, Sarah R Curran, Emma Woodhouse, Nicola Gillan, Victoria Hallett, Stephanie Lietz, Tracy Garnett, Angelica Ronald, Robert Plomin, Frühling Rijsdijk, Francesca Happé, Patrick Bolton
IMPORTANCE: Most evidence to date highlights the importance of genetic influences on the liability to autism and related traits. However, most of these findings are derived from clinically ascertained samples, possibly missing individuals with subtler manifestations, and obtained estimates may not be representative of the population. OBJECTIVES: To establish the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors in liability to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and a broader autism phenotype in a large population-based twin sample and to ascertain the genetic/environmental relationship between dimensional trait measures and categorical diagnostic constructs of ASD...
May 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
F Foti, F De Crescenzo, G Vivanti, D Menghini, S Vicari
BACKGROUND: Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by social communication difficulties and behavioural rigidity. Difficulties in learning from others are one of the most devastating features of this group of conditions. Nevertheless, the nature of learning difficulties in ASDs is still unclear. Given the relevance of implicit learning for social and communicative functioning, a link has been hypothesized between ASDs and implicit learning deficit. However, studies that have employed formal testing of implicit learning in ASDs provided mixed results...
April 2015: Psychological Medicine
Vivek Misra
Available research data in Autism suggests the role of a network of brain areas, often known as the 'social brain'. Recent studies highlight the role of genetic mutations as underlying patho-mechanism in Autism. This mini review, discusses the basic concepts behind social brain networks, theory of mind and genetic factors associated with Autism. It critically evaluates and explores the relationship between the behavioral outcomes and genetic factors providing a conceptual framework for understanding of autism...
April 2014: Annals of Neurosciences
A J Baxter, T S Brugha, H E Erskine, R W Scheurer, T Vos, J G Scott
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are persistent disabling neurodevelopmental disorders clinically evident from early childhood. For the first time, the burden of ASDs has been estimated for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010). The aims of this study were to develop global and regional prevalence models and estimate the global burden of disease of ASDs. METHOD: A systematic review was conducted for epidemiological data (prevalence, incidence, remission and mortality risk) of autistic disorder and other ASDs...
February 2015: Psychological Medicine
Meng-Chuan Lai, Michael V Lombardo, Simon Baron-Cohen
Autism is a set of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental conditions, characterised by early-onset difficulties in social communication and unusually restricted, repetitive behaviour and interests. The worldwide population prevalence is about 1%. Autism affects more male than female individuals, and comorbidity is common (>70% have concurrent conditions). Individuals with autism have atypical cognitive profiles, such as impaired social cognition and social perception, executive dysfunction, and atypical perceptual and information processing...
March 8, 2014: Lancet
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