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Tommy R Lundberg, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo, Per A Tesch
As aerobic exercise (AE) may interfere with adaptations to resistance exercise (RE), this study explored acute and chronic responses to consecutive AE (∼45 min cycling) and RE (4 × 7 maximal knee extensions) vs. RE only. Ten men performed acute unilateral AE + RE interspersed by 15 min recovery. The contralateral leg was subjected to RE. This exercise paradigm was then implemented in a 5-wk training program. Protein phosphorylation, gene expression, and glycogen content were assessed in biopsies obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of both legs immediately before and 3 h after acute RE...
March 15, 2014: Journal of Applied Physiology
Jane S Thornton, Pierre Frémont, Karim Khan, Paul Poirier, Jonathon Fowles, Greg D Wells, Renata J Frankovich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Courtney J McGowan, David B Pyne, Kevin G Thompson, Ben Rattray
It is widely accepted that warming-up prior to exercise is vital for the attainment of optimum performance. Both passive and active warm-up can evoke temperature, metabolic, neural and psychology-related effects, including increased anaerobic metabolism, elevated oxygen uptake kinetics and post-activation potentiation. Passive warm-up can increase body temperature without depleting energy substrate stores, as occurs during the physical activity associated with active warm-up. While the use of passive warm-up alone is not commonplace, the idea of utilizing passive warming techniques to maintain elevated core and muscle temperature throughout the transition phase (the period between completion of the warm-up and the start of the event) is gaining in popularity...
November 2015: Sports Medicine
Jenna B Gillen, Martin J Gibala
Growing research suggests that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve cardiorespiratory and metabolic health. "All out" HIIT models such as Wingate-type exercise are particularly effective, but this type of training may not be safe, tolerable or practical for many individuals. Recent studies, however, have revealed the potential for other models of HIIT, which may be more feasible but are still time-efficient, to stimulate adaptations similar to more demanding low-volume HIIT models and high-volume endurance-type training...
March 2014: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Andrew J R Cochran, Michael E Percival, Steven Tricarico, Jonathan P Little, Naomi Cermak, Jenna B Gillen, Mark A Tarnopolsky, Martin J Gibala
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) performed in an 'all-out' manner (e.g. repeated Wingate tests) is a time-efficient strategy to induce skeletal muscle remodelling towards a more oxidative phenotype. A fundamental question that remains unclear, however, is whether the intermittent or 'pulsed' nature of the stimulus is critical to the adaptive response. In study 1, we examined whether the activation of signalling cascades linked to mitochondrial biogenesis was dependent on the manner in which an acute high-intensity exercise stimulus was applied...
May 1, 2014: Experimental Physiology
M V Garnacho-Castaño, R Dominguez, J L Maté-Muñoz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
F Vasconcellos, A Seabra, R Montenegro, F Cunha, E Bouskela, P Farinatti
This study investigated the agreement and reliability of oxygen uptake (V̇O2), V̇O2 reserve (V̇O2 R), heart rate (HR) and power output at intensities corresponding to the gas exchange threshold (GET) and heart rate variability threshold (HRVT) during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in obese and eutrophic adolescents. A further aim was to establish whether the HRVT was able to detect changes in cardio-respiratory fitness in obese adolescents after 3 months of recreational soccer practice. First, 25 obese and 10 eutrophic adolescents (ages 12-17) visited the laboratory twice to perform cycling CPET to test the reliability of CPET outcomes at GET and HRVT...
July 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
T R Brüggemann, L C M Ávila, B Fortkamp, F R Greiffo, F Bobinski, L Mazzardo-Martins, D F Martins, M M M F Duarte, A Dafre, A R S Santos, M D Silva, L F Souza, R P Vieira, D C Hizume-Kunzler
In this study we hypothesized that swimming during sensitization phase could result in a preventive effect in mice with allergic asthma. Swiss mice were divided into 4 groups: Control and Swimming (non-sensitized), OVA and OVA+Swimming (sensitized). The allergic inflammation was induced by 2 intraperitoneal injections and 4 aerosol challenges using ovalbumin. Swimming sessions were performed at high intensity over 3 weeks. 48 h after the last challenge mice were euthanized. Swimming decreased OVA-increased total IgE, IL-1, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6 levels, as well as the number of total cells, lymphocytes and eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, (p<0...
June 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
T Da Roza, S Brandão, T Mascarenhas, R N Jorge, J A Duarte
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of different levels of regular physical exercise on the frequency of urinary incontinence in young nulliparous women from the northern region of Portugal. Participants (n=386) self-reported demographic variables, frequency, and time spent practicing organized exercise per week, as well as completed the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form. The level of exercise was calculated based on the time (in minutes) usually spent per week in organized exercise...
August 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Karim M Khan, Babette M Pluim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2015: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Ruth J F Loos, James M Hagberg, Louis Pérusse, Stephen M Roth, Mark A Sarzynski, Bernd Wolfarth, Tuomo Rankinen, Claude Bouchard
This is the annual review of the exercise genomics literature in which we report on the highest quality papers published in 2014. We identified a number of noteworthy papers across a number of fields. In 70-89 yr olds, only 19% of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) II homozygotes exhibited significant improvement in gait speed in response to a yearlong physical activity program compared to 30% of ACE D-allele carriers. New studies continue to support the notion that the genetic susceptibility to obesity, as evidenced by a genomic risk score (GRS; based on multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms), is attenuated by 40%-50% in individuals who are physically active, compared to those who are sedentary...
June 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
M V Garnacho-Castaño, R Dominguez, J L Maté-Muñoz
This study compares acute cardiorespiratory, metabolic, mechanical and rating of perceived effort (RPE) responses to 2 different prolonged constant-load exercises, half-squat (HS) and cycle ergometry, performed at a workload corresponding to the lactate threshold (LT). A total of 18 healthy subjects completed 5 exercise tests separated by 48 h rest periods: an incremental cycle ergometer test, a constant-load cycle ergometer test at LT intensity, a one-repetition maximum (1RM) HS test, an incremental HS test and a constant-load HS test at LT intensity...
May 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
E K Zadow, N Gordon, C R Abbiss, J J Peiffer
This study examined physiological and perceptual responses to matched work high-intensity interval training using all-out and 2 even-paced methodologies. 15 trained male cyclists performed 3 interval sessions of three 3-min efforts with 3 min of active recovery between efforts. The initial interval session was completed using all-out pacing, with the following 2 sessions being completed with computer- and athlete-controlled pacing in a randomised and semi-counterbalanced manner. Computer- and athlete-controlled intervals were completed at the mean power from the corresponding interval during the all-out trial...
March 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
L Parker Simpson, A M Jones, P F Skiba, A Vanhatalo, D Wilkerson
We investigated the influence of hypoxia on the asymptote (critical power, CP) and the curvature constant (W') of the hyperbolic power-duration relationship, as measured by both conventional and all-out testing procedures. 13 females completed 5 constant-power prediction trials and a 3-min all-out test to estimate CP and W', in both normoxia (N) and moderate hypoxia (H; FiO2=0.13). CP was significantly reduced in hypoxia compared to normoxia when estimated by conventional (H:132±17 vs. N:175±25 W; P<0...
February 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
V Rozand, T Cattagni, J Theurel, A Martin, R Lepers
Torque time integral (TTI) is the combination of intensity and duration of a contraction. The aim of this study was to compare neuromuscular alterations following different isometric sub-maximal contractions of the knee extensor muscles but with similar TTI. Sixteen participants performed 3 sustained contractions at different intensities (25%, 50%, and 75% of Maximal Voluntary Contraction (MVC) torque) with different durations (68.5±33.4 s, 35.1±16.8 s and 24.8±12.9 s, respectively) but similar TTI value...
January 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
V Andersen, M S Fimland, O Brennset, L R Haslestad, M S Lundteigen, K Skalleberg, A H Saeterbakken
The aim of the study was to compare muscle activity using the same relative resistance in squats and Bulgarian squats on stable and unstable surface. Muscle strength and activity were assessed by 6-repetition maximum and concomitant surface electromyography. A cohort of 15 resistance-trained males performed the exercises on the floor or a foam cushion in randomized order. The muscle activity was greater in biceps femoris (63-77%, p<0.01) and core muscle external obliques (58-62%, p<0.05) for the Bulgarian squat compared to regular squats, but lower for rectus femoris (16-21%, p<0...
December 2014: International Journal of Sports Medicine
T D'Agosto, T Peçanha, R Bartels, D N Moreira, L P Silva, A C L Nóbrega, J R P Lima
Analyzes of cardiac autonomic responses at the initial transient of exercise have been used for the investigation of the cardiovascular health. We evaluated the influence of aerobic fitness on HR and HRV responses at the onset of exercise. 25 male subjects (22.3±2.4 years) were divided into 2 groups: 'low aerobic fitness' (36.2±; n=10) and 'high aerobic fitness' (46.4±; n=15). The experimental session consisted of assessing the beat-to-beat HR at rest and during submaximal exercise...
September 2014: International Journal of Sports Medicine
P Wahl, S Mathes, S Achtzehn, W Bloch, J Mester
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of active (A) vs. passive (P) recovery during high-intensity interval training on the acute hormonal and metabolic response. Twelve triathletes/cyclists performed four 4 min intervals on a cycle ergometer, either with A- or P-recovery between each bout. Testosterone, hGH, cortisol, VEGF, HGF and MIF were determined pre, 0', 30', 60' and 180' after both interventions. Metabolic perturbations were characterized by lactate, blood gas and spirometric analysis...
June 2014: International Journal of Sports Medicine
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