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C S Davis, R E Clarke, S N Coulter, K N Rounsefell, R E Walker, C E Rauch, C E Huggins, L Ryan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Intermittent energy restriction (IER) is an eating pattern of regular daily periods of restricted energy intake followed by periods of unrestricted energy intake. This is gaining prominence as an alternative weight-loss strategy to daily energy restriction (DER). The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of IER on weight loss in overweight and obese adults and compare this with DER. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using the CINAHL, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, Cochrane and Scopus databases...
March 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
L B Bauer, L J Reynolds, S M Douglas, M L Kearney, H A Hoertel, R S Shafer, J P Thyfault, H J Leidy
To examine whether the daily consumption of normal-protein (NP) vs higher-protein (HP) breakfasts improve free-living glycemic control in overweight/obese, 'breakfast skipping' adolescents. Twenty-eight healthy, but overweight, teens (age: 19±1 year; BMI: 29.9±0.8 kg m(-2)) completed a 12-week randomized parallel-arm study in which the adolescents consumed either a 350 kcal NP breakfast (13 g protein) or HP breakfast (35 g protein). Pre- and post-study 24-h blood glucose measures were assessed using continuous glucose monitoring...
September 2015: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
E B Foster, G Fisher, J L Sartin, T H Elsasser, G Wu, W Cowan, D D Pascoe
This investigation sought to examine the contributions of exercise and nutrient replenishment on in vivo regulation of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis components. Eight college-aged males completed three high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols followed by three post-exercise nutritional protocols: (1) placebo (EX); (2) carbohydrate only (CHO); and (3) essential amino acid/carbohydrate (EAA/CHO). Samples were analyzed for growth hormone (GH), free IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, insulin, hematocrit, hemoglobin, serum leucine, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) proteolytic activity, and presence of IGFBP-3 protease activity...
April 2012: Amino Acids
Steven N Blair, Gregory A Hand, James O Hill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2015: British Journal of Sports Medicine
A Malhotra, T Noakes, S Phinney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2015: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Priya Deshmukh-Taskar, Theresa A Nicklas, John D Radcliffe, Carol E O'Neil, Yan Liu
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). DESIGN: Cross-sectional. Three breakfast groups were identified, breakfast skippers (BS), ready-to-eat-cereal (RTEC) consumers and other breakfast (OB) consumers, using a 24 h dietary recall. Risk factors were compared between the breakfast groups using covariate-adjusted statistical procedures...
November 2013: Public Health Nutrition
S Papoutsou, G Briassoulis, M Wolters, J Peplies, L Iacoviello, G Eiben, T Veidebaum, D Molnar, P Russo, N Michels, L A Moreno, M Tornaritis
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Limited data exist regarding breakfast consumption and its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This study investigates the relationship between breakfast routine and CVD risk factors in a multinational sample. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Cross-sectional data from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) survey (2007-2008) were used...
July 2014: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Margaret Ashwell
In recent years, the number of people described as being either overweight and obese has increased dramatically, and especially among children. Breakfast has long been recommended as part of a healthy diet and, for some time, evidence has been accumulating that people who eat breakfast regularly are slimmer than those who skip breakfast. This article examines the supporting evidence for this claim, in both adults and children, and discusses the importance of a healthy diet and plenty of exercise, as well as methods the nurse can use to help patients remain aware of their shape and weight...
October 14, 2010: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Marta Garaulet, Purificación Gómez-Abellán
Recent studies link energy regulation to the circadian clock at the behavioral, physiological and molecular levels, emphasizing that the timing of food intake itself may have a significant role in obesity. In this regards, there is emerging literature in animals demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation. Unusual feeding time can produce a disruption of the circadian system which might produce unhealthy consequences in humans. In a longitudinal study, we recently showed that the timing of the main meal was predictive of weight loss during a 20-week dietary intervention and that this effect was independent from total 24-h caloric intake...
July 2014: Physiology & Behavior
Ingrid Løvold Mostad, Mette Langaas, Valdemar Grill
All-population and area-based investigations of diet in central obesity are scarce. We used cross-sectional data from 50 339 individuals who responded to the HUNT3 survey of 2006-2008, which recruited from all county-residing adults 20 years and older, to investigate whether those with central obesity eat and drink differently than others. Answers to dietary questions were recoded and analyzed with multiple linear regression, using waist/hip ratio (WHR), age, and sex as explanatory variables. Frequencies of consumption or amounts of food, beverages, and meals were compared among WHR quartiles...
July 2014: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
A Astrup, A Raben, N Geiker
The importance of the relative dietary content of protein, carbohydrate and the type of carbohydrate (that is, glycemic index (GI)) for weight control under ad libitum conditions has been controversial owing to the lack of large scale studies with high diet adherence. The Diet, Obesity and Genes (DioGenes) European multicentre trial examined the importance of a slight increase in dietary protein content, reduction in carbohydrate and the importance of choosing low (LGI) vs high GI (HGI) carbohydrates for weight control in 932 obese families...
May 2015: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Elvira Isganaitis, Robert H Lustig
Rates of obesity and insulin resistance have climbed sharply over the past 30 years. These epidemics are temporally related to a dramatic rise in consumption of fast food; until recently, it was not known whether the fast food was driving the obesity, or vice versa. We review the unique properties of fast food that make it the ideal obesigenic foodstuff, and elucidate the mechanisms by which fast food intake contributes to obesity, emphasizing its effects on energy metabolism and on the central regulation of appetite...
December 2005: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Robert H Lustig
What do the Atkins Diet and the traditional Japanese diet have in common? The Atkins Diet is low in carbohydrate and usually high in fat; the Japanese diet is high in carbohydrate and usually low in fat. Yet both work to promote weight loss. One commonality of both diets is that they both eliminate the monosaccharide fructose. Sucrose (table sugar) and its synthetic sister high fructose corn syrup consist of 2 molecules, glucose and fructose. Glucose is the molecule that when polymerized forms starch, which has a high glycemic index, generates an insulin response, and is not particularly sweet...
March 1, 2013: Advances in Nutrition
J Ribeyre, N Fellmann, C Montaurier, M Delaître, J Vernet, J Coudert, M Vermorel
The objectives of the present study were to determine whether differences in usual physical activity affect BMR, sleeping energy expenditure (EE), and EE during seated activities between athletic and non-athletic adolescents, and to establish individual relationships between heart rate and EE. Adolescents (n 49, four groups of eleven to fifteen boys or girls aged 16-19 years) participated in the study. Body composition was measured by the skinfold-thickness method and maximum O2 consumption (VO2max) by a direct method (respiratory gas exchange) on a cycloergometer...
April 2000: British Journal of Nutrition
Gordon S Doig, Fiona Simpson, Elizabeth A Sweetman, Simon R Finfer, D Jamie Cooper, Philippa T Heighes, Andrew R Davies, Michael O'Leary, Tom Solano, Sandra Peake
IMPORTANCE: Systematic reviews suggest adult patients in intensive care units (ICUs) with relative contraindications to early enteral nutrition (EN) may benefit from parenteral nutrition (PN) provided within 24 hours of ICU admission. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether providing early PN to critically ill adults with relative contraindications to early EN alters outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Multicenter, randomized, single-blind clinical trial conducted between October 2006 and June 2011 in ICUs of 31 community and tertiary hospitals in Australia and New Zealand...
May 22, 2013: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
A Ali, J M O'Donnell, C Starck, K J Rutherfurd-Markwick
In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 10 females taking monophasic oral contraceptives completed 90 min intermittent treadmill-running 45 min after ingestion of 6 mg∙kg(-1) body mass anhydrous caffeine or artificial sweetener (placebo). Water (3 mL∙kg(-1)) was provided every 15 min during exercise. Venous blood samples were taken before, during and after exercise, as well as after sleep (~15 h post-ingestion), and levels of caffeine, paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography...
June 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
M Da Boit, B M Gabriel, P Gray, S R Gray
Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) are a frequent illness among athletes. We investigated the effect of a multi-nutrient supplement (vitamin D, fish oil and protein) on the occurrence of URTI in young active people. 42 young recreational athletes were randomly assigned to receive either supplementation (550 mg DHA, 550 mg EPA, 10 µg vitamin D3 and 8 g whey protein) or placebo for 16 weeks. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected by passive drool. Samples were analysed for IgA (sIgA) concentration and the secretion rate extrapolated by multiplying concentration by saliva flow rate...
May 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
F He, J A K Hockemeyer, D Sedlock
We investigated the effect of antioxidant supplementation on markers of muscle damage, antioxidant status, and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) after repeated downhill runs. Moderately-trained males (n=22) were randomly assigned to a supplement (S) or placebo (P) group. Capsules (vitamin C:1 000 mg/d; vitamin E: 400 IU/d) were ingested daily for 2 weeks. before the first (1D) and second (2D) downhill runs, and for 2 additional days following each run. Creatine kinase (CK) activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were measured pre-exercise and at 0 (immediately), 6, 24 and 48 h post-exercise (POST)...
May 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
David Hughes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2014: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Mahroukh Rafii, Karen Chapman, Jillian Owens, Rajavel Elango, Wayne W Campbell, Ronald O Ball, Paul B Pencharz, Glenda Courtney-Martin
BACKGROUND: Studies on protein requirements in vulnerable groups such as older adults are few, and results are conflicting. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to determine the protein requirements of free-living women >65 y by measuring the oxidation of l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine to (13)CO2 in response to graded intakes of protein. METHODS: Twelve subjects participated in the study, with protein intakes ranging from 0.2 to 2...
January 2015: Journal of Nutrition
2015-02-25 01:43:38
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