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By Guy Bezalel Pt interested in gait balance fall prevention and exergaming
Jonathan C Singer, William E McIlroy, Stephen D Prentice
Research examining age-related changes in dynamic stability during stepping has recognised the importance of the restabilisation phase, subsequent to foot-contact. While regulation of the net ground reaction force (GRFnet) line of action is believed to influence dynamic stability during steady-state locomotion, such control during restabilisation remains unknown. This work explored the origins of age-related decline in mediolateral dynamic stability by examining the line of action of GRFnet relative to the centre of mass (COM) during restabilisation following voluntary stepping...
November 7, 2014: Journal of Biomechanics
Mark W Rogers, Marie-Laure Mille
Physiological and degenerative changes affecting human standing balance are major contributors to falls with ageing. During imbalance, stepping is a powerful protective action for preserving balance that may be voluntarily initiated in recognition of a balance threat, or be induced by an externally imposed mechanical or sensory perturbation. Paradoxically, with ageing and falls, initiation slowing of voluntary stepping is observed together with perturbation-induced steps that are triggered as fast as or faster than for younger adults...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Cay Anderson-Hanley, Paul J Arciero, Nicole Barcelos, Joseph Nimon, Tracey Rocha, Marisa Thurin, Molly Maloney
The rise in dementia and the evidence of cognitive benefits of exercise for the older adult population together make salient the research into variables affecting cognitive benefit and exercise behavior. One promising avenue for increasing exercise participation has been the introduction of exergaming, a type of exercise that works in combination with virtual reality to enhance both the exercise experience and health outcomes. Past research has revealed that executive function (EF) was related to greater use of self-regulatory strategies, which in turn was related to greater adherence to exercise following an intervention (McAuley et al...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
E Yiou, M C Do
During voluntary stepping initiation, postural stability along the mediolateral direction is controlled via "anticipatory postural adjustment" (APA). This study tested the hypothesis that, in young healthy subjects, the biomechanical features of mediolateral APA depend on the leg that initiates stepping. Subjects (N=10) initiated a rapid single step with the preferred (P condition) and the non-preferred leg (NP condition) on a force-plate. Results showed that mediolateral APA duration (P=0.020) and amplitude were higher (as attested by the increase in maximal center-of-gravity velocity (P=0...
May 2010: Gait & Posture
J F Stins, P J Beek
The present experiment was conducted to examine the expectation that emotion stimuli influence the initiation and execution of voluntary stepping, a highly coordinated activity involving a sequence of medio-lateral and anterio-posterior weight shifts. Thirty participants made forward (approach) or backward (avoidance) steps on a forceplate in response to the valence of visual stimuli. Posturographic parameters of the steps, related to automatic stimulus evaluation, step initiation and step execution, were determined and analyzed as a function of stimulus valence and stimulus-response mapping...
June 2011: Gait & Posture
Itshak Melzer, Lars Ie Oddsson
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a group-based functional and specific balance training programme that included dual-task exercises on balance function in healthy older adults. DESIGN: A single-blind randomized controlled trial. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-six community-dwelling older adults (age 77.0 ± 6.5 years), without functional balance impairment were recruited and allocated at random to an intervention group (n = 33) or a reference group (n = 33)...
March 2013: Clinical Rehabilitation
Patrick J Sparto, Susan I Fuhrman, Mark S Redfern, J Richard Jennings, Subashan Perera, Robert D Nebes, Joseph M Furman
Postural dual-task studies have demonstrated effects of various executive function components on gait and postural control in older adults. The purpose of the study was to explore the role of inhibition during lateral step initiation. Forty older adults participated (range 70-94 yr). Subjects stepped to the left or right in response to congruous and incongruous visual cues that consisted of left and right arrows appearing on left or right sides of a monitor. The timing of postural adjustments was identified by inflection points in the vertical ground reaction forces (VGRF) measured separately under each foot...
January 2013: Journal of Neurophysiology
Karolina M Zakoscielna, Patricia A Parmelee
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this secondary data analysis is to determine whether depression, cognition, functional status, health, and pain severity are predictors of day-to-day pain variability in older adults in long-term care settings. METHODS: Seventy-seven adults aged 68 years and older were included in the multiple linear regression analyses. Pain severity mean and variability were measured over 30 days of daily self-reported pain levels. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Blessed Memory-Information-Concentration test, Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS), baseline pain severity, mean of daily health, and mean of daily pain severity were used as predictors...
December 2013: Journal of Aging and Health
Louis Bherer, Kirk I Erickson, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Studies supporting the notion that physical activity and exercise can help alleviate the negative impact of age on the body and the mind abound. This literature review provides an overview of important findings in this fast growing research domain. Results from cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies with healthy older adults, frail patients, and persons suffering from mild cognitive impairment and dementia are reviewed and discussed. Together these finding suggest that physical exercise is a promising nonpharmaceutical intervention to prevent age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases...
2013: Journal of Aging Research
Osvaldo P Almeida, Karim M Khan, Graeme J Hankey, Bu B Yeap, Jonathan Golledge, Leon Flicker
BACKGROUND: Physical activity has been associated with improved survival, but it is unclear whether this increase in longevity is accompanied by preserved mental and physical functioning, also known as healthy ageing. We designed this study to determine whether physical activity is associated with healthy ageing in later life. METHODS: We recruited a community-representative sample of 12 201 men aged 65-83 years and followed them for 10-13 years. We assessed physical activity at the beginning and the end of the follow-up period...
February 2014: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Dario Riva, Carlo Mamo, Mara Fanì, Patrizia Saccavino, Flavio Rocca, Manuel Momenté, Marianna Fratta
In developed countries, falls in older people represent a rising problem. As effective prevention should start before the risk becomes evident, an early predictor is needed. Single stance instability would appear as a major risk factor. Aims of the study were to describe single stance stability, its sensory components, and their correlation with age and gender. A random sample of 597 older adults (319 men, 278 women) living at home, aged 65-84, was studied. Stability tests were performed with an electronic postural station...
2013: Journal of Aging Research
Therese Brovold, Dawn A Skelton, Hilde Sylliaas, Morten Mowe, Astrid Bergland
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among health-related quality of life (HRQOL), physical fitness, and physical activity in older patients after recent discharge from hospital. One hundred fifteen independent-living older adults (ages 70-92 years) were included. HRQOL (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey), physical activity (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly), and physical fitness (Senior Fitness Test) were measured 2-4 weeks after discharge. Higher levels of physical activity and physical fitness were correlated with higher self-reported HRQOL...
July 2014: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Jennifer Joyce, Patrick J Smyth, Alan E Donnelly, Karen Davranche
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the influence of an acute bout of moderate exercise and examine the potential lasting improvements over time in young and old adults within the same experimental paradigm over a 2-h testing period. The study was designed to assess the efficiency of selective control and the propensity to make fast impulsive reactions through the analyses of the percentage of correct responses (CAF) and the magnitude of the interference effect (delta curve) as a function of the latency of the response...
March 2014: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Liza Stathokostas, Olga Theou, Robert M D Little, A A Vandervoort, Parminder Raina
The purpose of this project is to conduct a comprehensive and systematic scoping review to identify and document the breadth of literature related to physical activity-related injuries in older adults. The population of interest was adults (both males and females) over the age of 65 years, participating in exercise, leisure-time, or sport-type physical activities. The initial search yielded 16,828 articles, with 43 articles ultimately included. The final 43 articles utilized the following study designs: three experimental (two randomized control and one non-randomized control), 14 prospective studies, and 26 retrospective...
October 2013: Sports Medicine
Agneta Malmgren Fänge, Frank Oswald, Lindy Clemson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2012: Journal of Aging Research
Yamni Nigam, John Knight, Sharmila Bhattacharya, Antony Bayer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2012: Journal of Aging Research
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