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By Gregory Cohen Psychiatry resident at University of Toronto
Deborah S Hasin, Dvora Shmulewitz, Aaron L Sarvet
BACKGROUND: Due to significant comorbidity and impairment associated with cannabis use and cannabis use disorder, understanding time trends in cannabis use and cannabis use disorder is an important public health priority. OBJECTIVES: To identify trends in cannabis use and cannabis use disorder overall, and by sociodemographic subgroup. METHODS: Narrative review of published findings on trends in cannabis use and cannabis use disorders in data from repeated cross-sectional US general population surveys...
March 14, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Philip D Harvey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Vincent Pascoli, Agnès Hiver, Ruud Van Zessen, Michaël Loureiro, Ridouane Achargui, Masaya Harada, Jérôme Flakowski, Christian Lüscher
Activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system reinforces goal-directed behaviours. With repetitive stimulation-for example, by chronic drug abuse-the reinforcement may become compulsive and intake continues even in the face of major negative consequences. Here we gave mice the opportunity to optogenetically self-stimulate dopaminergic neurons and observed that only a fraction of mice persevered if they had to endure an electric shock. Compulsive lever pressing was associated with an activity peak in the projection terminals from the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) to the dorsal striatum...
December 2018: Nature
Patricia Janak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Nature
Philip D Harvey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Lisa Caulley, Benjamin Caplan, Edgar Ross
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 379, Issue 16, Page 1575-1577, October 2018.
October 18, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Tracy L Simpson, Andrew J Saxon, Cynthia Stappenbeck, Carol A Malte, Robert Lyons, Dana Tell, Steven P Millard, Murray Raskind
OBJECTIVE: Current medications for alcohol use disorder do not target brain noradrenergic pathways. Theoretical and preclinical evidence suggests that noradrenergic circuits may be involved in alcohol reinforcement and relapse. After a positive pilot study, the authors tested the α-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin to treat alcohol use disorder in a larger sample. METHOD: Ninety-two participants with alcohol use disorder but without posttraumatic stress disorder were randomly assigned to receive prazosin or placebo in a 12-week double-blind study...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Barbara J Mason, Susan Quello, Vivian Goodell, Farhad Shadan, Mark Kyle, Adnan Begovic
IMPORTANCE: Approved medications for alcohol dependence are prescribed for less than 9% of US alcoholics. OBJECTIVE: To determine if gabapentin, a widely prescribed generic calcium channel/γ-aminobutyric acid-modulating medication, increases rates of sustained abstinence and no heavy drinking and decreases alcohol-related insomnia, dysphoria, and craving, in a dose-dependent manner. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized dose-ranging trial of 150 men and women older than 18 years with current alcohol dependence, conducted from 2004 through 2010 at a single-site, outpatient clinical research facility adjoining a general medical hospital...
January 2014: JAMA Internal Medicine
Anna Rickli, Evangelia Liakoni, Marius C Hoener, Matthias E Liechti
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Opioids may inhibit the 5-HT transporter (SERT) and the noradrenaline transporter (NET). NET inhibition may contribute to analgesia, and SERT inhibition or interactions with 5-HT receptors may cause serotonergic toxicity. However, the effects of different opioids on the human SERT, NET and 5-HT receptors have not been sufficiently studied. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We determined the potencies of different opioids to inhibit the SERT and NET in vitro using human transporter-transfected HEK293 cells...
February 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Angela M Wood, Stephen Kaptoge, Adam S Butterworth, Peter Willeit, Samantha Warnakula, Thomas Bolton, Ellie Paige, Dirk S Paul, Michael Sweeting, Stephen Burgess, Steven Bell, William Astle, David Stevens, Albert Koulman, Randi M Selmer, W M Monique Verschuren, Shinichi Sato, Inger Njølstad, Mark Woodward, Veikko Salomaa, Børge G Nordestgaard, Bu B Yeap, Astrid Fletcher, Olle Melander, Lewis H Kuller, Beverley Balkau, Michael Marmot, Wolfgang Koenig, Edoardo Casiglia, Cyrus Cooper, Volker Arndt, Oscar H Franco, Patrik Wennberg, John Gallacher, Agustín Gómez de la Cámara, Henry Völzke, Christina C Dahm, Caroline E Dale, Manuela M Bergmann, Carlos J Crespo, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Rudolf Kaaks, Leon A Simons, Pagona Lagiou, Josje D Schoufour, Jolanda M A Boer, Timothy J Key, Beatriz Rodriguez, Conchi Moreno-Iribas, Karina W Davidson, James O Taylor, Carlotta Sacerdote, Robert B Wallace, J Ramon Quiros, Rosario Tumino, Dan G Blazer, Allan Linneberg, Makoto Daimon, Salvatore Panico, Barbara Howard, Guri Skeie, Timo Strandberg, Elisabete Weiderpass, Paul J Nietert, Bruce M Psaty, Daan Kromhout, Elena Salamanca-Fernandez, Stefan Kiechl, Harlan M Krumholz, Sara Grioni, Domenico Palli, José M Huerta, Jackie Price, Johan Sundström, Larraitz Arriola, Hisatomi Arima, Ruth C Travis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Anna Karakatsani, Antonia Trichopoulou, Tilman Kühn, Diederick E Grobbee, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Natasja van Schoor, Heiner Boeing, Kim Overvad, Jussi Kauhanen, Nick Wareham, Claudia Langenberg, Nita Forouhi, Maria Wennberg, Jean-Pierre Després, Mary Cushman, Jackie A Cooper, Carlos J Rodriguez, Masaru Sakurai, Jonathan E Shaw, Matthew Knuiman, Trudy Voortman, Christa Meisinger, Anne Tjønneland, Hermann Brenner, Luigi Palmieri, Jean Dallongeville, Eric J Brunner, Gerd Assmann, Maurizio Trevisan, Richard F Gillum, Ian Ford, Naveed Sattar, Mariana Lazo, Simon G Thompson, Pietro Ferrari, David A Leon, George Davey Smith, Richard Peto, Rod Jackson, Emily Banks, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, John Danesh
BACKGROUND: Low-risk limits recommended for alcohol consumption vary substantially across different national guidelines. To define thresholds associated with lowest risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease, we studied individual-participant data from 599 912 current drinkers without previous cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We did a combined analysis of individual-participant data from three large-scale data sources in 19 high-income countries (the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, EPIC-CVD, and the UK Biobank)...
April 14, 2018: Lancet
Katie Witkiewitz, Daniel E Falk, Henry R Kranzler, Raye Z Litten, Kevin A Hallgren, Stephanie S O'Malley, Raymond F Anton
BACKGROUND: Attrition is common in alcohol clinical trials and the resultant loss of data represents an important methodological problem. In the absence of a simulation study, the drinking outcomes among those who are lost to follow-up are not known. Individuals who drop out of treatment and continue to provide drinking data, however, may be a reasonable proxy group for making inferences about the drinking outcomes of those lost to follow-up. METHODS: We used data from the COMBINE study, a multisite, randomized clinical trial, to examine drinking during the 4 months of treatment among individuals who dropped out of treatment but continued to provide drinking data (i...
November 2014: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Raymond F Anton, Stephanie S O'Malley, Domenic A Ciraulo, Ron A Cisler, David Couper, Dennis M Donovan, David R Gastfriend, James D Hosking, Bankole A Johnson, Joseph S LoCastro, Richard Longabaugh, Barbara J Mason, Margaret E Mattson, William R Miller, Helen M Pettinati, Carrie L Randall, Robert Swift, Roger D Weiss, Lauren D Williams, Allen Zweben
CONTEXT: Alcohol dependence treatment may include medications, behavioral therapies, or both. It is unknown how combining these treatments may impact their effectiveness, especially in the context of primary care and other nonspecialty settings. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of medication, behavioral therapies, and their combinations for treatment of alcohol dependence and to evaluate placebo effect on overall outcome. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized controlled trial conducted January 2001-January 2004 among 1383 recently alcohol-abstinent volunteers (median age, 44 years) from 11 US academic sites with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnoses of primary alcohol dependence...
May 3, 2006: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Nasim Vousooghi, Mitra-Sadat Sadat-Shirazi, Payam Safavi, Ramin Zeraati, Ardeshir Akbarabadi, Seyed Mohammad Makki, Shahrzad Nazari, Mohammad Reza Zarrindast
Addiction to drugs, including opioids is the result of an interplay between environmental and genetic factors. It has been shown that the progeny of addict people is at higher risk for drug addiction. However, the mechanisms of such trans-generational effects of drugs are not so clear. Here we have evaluated the effects of parental morphine consumption on anxiety, morphine preference, and mRNA expression of dopamine receptors in F1 and F2 male offspring. Morphine was chronically administered to adult male and female Wistar rats followed by 14-day abstinence before mating...
October 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Thomas J Spencer, Pradeep Bhide, Jinmin Zhu, Stephen V Faraone, Maura Fitzgerald, Amy M Yule, Mai Uchida, Andrea E Spencer, Anna M Hall, Ariana J Koster, Leah Feinberg, Sarah Kassabian, Barbara Storch, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: Supratherapeutic doses of methylphenidate activate μ-opioid receptors, which are linked to euphoria. This study assessed whether naltrexone, a mixed μ-opioid antagonist, may attenuate the euphoric effects of stimulants, thereby minimizing their abuse potential in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We conducted a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of naltrexone in adults with DSM-IV ADHD receiving open treatment with a long-acting formulation of methylphenidate (January 2013 to June 2015)...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Gillinder Bedi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Michael P Bogenschutz, Samantha K Podrebarac, Jessie H Duane, Sean S Amegadzie, Tara C Malone, Lindsey T Owens, Stephen Ross, Sarah E Mennenga
After a hiatus of some 40 years, clinical research has resumed on the use of classic hallucinogens to treat addiction. Following completion of a small open-label feasibility study, we are currently conducting a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of psilocybin-assisted treatment of alcohol use disorder. Although treatment effects cannot be analyzed until the study is complete, descriptive case studies provide a useful window into the therapeutic process of psychedelic-assisted treatment of addiction...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Robin L Carhart-Harris, Mark Bolstridge, James Rucker, Camilla M J Day, David Erritzoe, Mendel Kaelen, Michael Bloomfield, James A Rickard, Ben Forbes, Amanda Feilding, David Taylor, Steve Pilling, Valerie H Curran, David J Nutt
BACKGROUND: Psilocybin is a serotonin receptor agonist that occurs naturally in some mushroom species. Recent studies have assessed the therapeutic potential of psilocybin for various conditions, including end-of-life anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and smoking and alcohol dependence, with promising preliminary results. Here, we aimed to investigate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of psilocybin in patients with unipolar treatment-resistant depression. METHODS: In this open-label feasibility trial, 12 patients (six men, six women) with moderate-to-severe, unipolar, treatment-resistant major depression received two oral doses of psilocybin (10 mg and 25 mg, 7 days apart) in a supportive setting...
July 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Aileen Kenneson, Jennifer S Funderburk, Stephen A Maisto
BACKGROUND: There is a well-known association between mood disorders and substance use disorders (SUD), but little research has been conducted on SUDs as risk factors for the development of subsequent mood disorders. METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication study. Diagnoses were determined using DSM-IV criteria. Odds ratios (aORs) of subsequently developing mood disorders were adjusted for age, sex and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Data from 5217 individuals were included (6...
December 1, 2013: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Karen E Moeller, Julie C Kissack, Rabia S Atayee, Kelly C Lee
Urine drug testing is frequently used in clinical, employment, educational, and legal settings and misinterpretation of test results can result in significant adverse consequences for the individual who is being tested. Advances in drug testing technology combined with a rise in the number of novel misused substances present challenges to clinicians to appropriately interpret urine drug test results. Authors searched PubMed and Google Scholar to identify published literature written in English between 1946 and 2016, using urine drug test, screen, false-positive, false-negative, abuse, and individual drugs of abuse as key words...
May 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Seth W Hurley, Elizabeth A West, Regina M Carelli
BACKGROUND: Negative reinforcement theories of drug addiction posit that addicts use drugs to alleviate negative mood states. In a preclinical model developed in our laboratory, rats exhibit negative affect to a normally rewarding taste cue when it predicts impending but delayed cocaine. The emergence of this state is accompanied by a reduction in dopamine concentration in the rostral nucleus accumbens shell. However, the rostral and caudal regions of the shell have been implicated in promoting opposing appetitive and aversive states, respectively...
December 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
2017-07-03 13:46:09
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