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Flavia Mancini, Anne-Lise Beaumont, Li Hu, Patrick Haggard, Giandomenico D Iannetti, Gian Domenico D Iannetti
The neural mechanisms of the powerful analgesia induced by touching a painful body part are controversial. A long tradition of neurophysiologic studies in anaesthetized spinal animals indicate that touch can gate nociceptive input at spinal level. In contrast, recent studies in awake humans have suggested that supraspinal mechanisms can be sufficient to drive touch-induced analgesia. To investigate this issue, we evaluated the modulation exerted by touch on established electrophysiologic markers of nociceptive function at both subcortical and cortical levels in humans...
October 2015: Pain
Catherine R Jutzeler, Armin Curt, John L K Kramer
UNLABELLED: Although nonnoxious, high-frequency electrical stimulation applied segmentally (ie, conventional transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation [TENS]) has been proposed to modulate pain, the mechanisms underlying analgesia remain poorly understood. To further elucidate how TENS modulates pain, we examined evoked responses to noxious thermal stimuli after the induction of sensitization using capsaicin in healthy volunteers. We hypothesized that sensitization caused by capsaicin application would unmask TENS analgesia, which could not be detected in the absence of sensitization...
July 2015: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Kai Karos, Ann Meulders, Johan W S Vlaeyen
UNLABELLED: This study investigated the effects of a threatening and a safe social context on learning pain-related fear, a key factor in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. We measured self-reported pain intensity, pain expectancy, pain-related fear (verbal ratings and eyeblink startle responses), and behavioral measures of avoidance (movement-onset latency and duration) using an established differential voluntary movement fear conditioning paradigm. Participants (N = 42) performed different movements with a joystick: during fear acquisition, movement in one direction (CS+) was followed by a painful stimulus (pain-US) whereas movement in another direction (CS-) was not...
March 2015: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Nicole Geschwind, Michel Meulders, Madelon L Peters, Johan W S Vlaeyen, Ann Meulders
UNLABELLED: Recent experimental data show that associative learning processes are involved not only in the acquisition but also in the spreading of pain-related fear. Clinical studies suggest involvement of positive affect in resilience against chronic pain. Surprisingly, the role of positive affect in associative learning in general, and in fear generalization in particular, has received scant attention. In a voluntary movement paradigm, in which one arm movement (reinforced conditioned stimulus [CS+]) was followed by a painful stimulus and another was not (unreinforced conditioned stimulus [CS-]), we tested generalization of fear inhibition in response to 5 novel but related generalization movements (GSs; within-subjects) after either a positive affect induction or a control exercise (Group = between-subjects) in healthy participants (N = 50)...
March 2015: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Antti Puroila, Markus Paananen, Simo Taimela, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Jaro Karppinen
OBJECTIVE: Musculoskeletal (MS) pain, especially in multiple body sites, may develop into a disabling problem. Still, the long-term risk factors of MS pain are insufficiently known. We examined whether adverse health behaviors in adolescence are associated with the number of pain sites in adulthood. SETTING: The study population was a subgroup (n = 5,737) of the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort, which had answered a postal questionnaire on health behaviors at the age of 14 and a pain questionnaire at approximately 31 years...
June 2015: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
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