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Intellectual Impairment

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3 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Abraham Nunes Psychiatry resident interested in computational neuroscience, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry.
Jay W Ellison, Jill A Rosenfeld, Lisa G Shaffer
In the past decade, we have witnessed a flood of reports about mutations that cause or contribute to intellectual disability (ID). This rapid progress has been driven in large part by the implementation of chromosomal microarray analysis and next-generation sequencing methods. The findings have revealed extensive genetic heterogeneity for ID, as well as examples of a common genetic etiology for ID and other neurobehavioral/psychiatric phenotypes. Clinical diagnostic application of these new findings is already well under way, despite incomplete understanding of non-Mendelian transmission patterns that are sometimes observed...
2013: Annual Review of Medicine
Silvia Bassani, Jonathan Zapata, Laura Gerosa, Edoardo Moretto, Luca Murru, Maria Passafaro
X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) affects 1% to 3% of the population. XLID subsumes several heterogeneous conditions, all of which are marked by cognitive impairment and reduced adaptive skills. XLID arises from mutations on the X chromosome; to date, 102 XLID genes have been identified. The proteins encoded by XLID genes are involved in higher brain functions, such as cognition, learning and memory, and their molecular role is the subject of intense investigation. Here, we review recent findings concerning a representative group of XLID proteins: the fragile X mental retardation protein; methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 and cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 proteins, which are involved in Rett syndrome; the intracellular signaling molecules of the Rho guanosine triphosphatases family; and the class of cell adhesion molecules...
October 2013: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Sharon J Krinsky-McHale, Wayne Silverman
Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are now living longer with the majority of individuals reaching middle and even "old age." As a consequence of this extended longevity they are vulnerable to the same age-associated health problems as elderly adults in the general population without ID. This includes dementia, a general term referring to a variety of diseases and conditions causing substantial loss of cognitive ability and functional declines; adults with Down syndrome are at especially high risk...
2013: Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews
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