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Ahmed Al Sunni, Rabia Latif
BACKGROUND: Cocoa polyphenols have been shown to reduce stress in highly stressed, as well as normal healthy individuals, we wondered whether commercially available chocolate could reduce perceived stress in medical students or not, so we decided to conduct this study. METHODS: Sixty students were divided into 3 groups (10 males + 10 females/group): i) Dark chocolate (DC) ii) Milk chocolate (MC) iii) White chocolate (WC). Subjects answered a PSS-10 (Perceived Stress Scale) questionnaire at baseline and after consumption of chocolate (40 g/day) for 2 weeks...
October 2014: International Journal of Health Sciences
Annie N Samraj, Oliver M T Pearce, Heinz Läubli, Alyssa N Crittenden, Anne K Bergfeld, Kalyan Banda, Christopher J Gregg, Andrea E Bingman, Patrick Secrest, Sandra L Diaz, Nissi M Varki, Ajit Varki
A well known, epidemiologically reproducible risk factor for human carcinomas is the long-term consumption of "red meat" of mammalian origin. Although multiple theories have attempted to explain this human-specific association, none have been conclusively proven. We used an improved method to survey common foods for free and glycosidically bound forms of the nonhuman sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), showing that it is highly and selectively enriched in red meat. The bound form of Neu5Gc is bioavailable, undergoing metabolic incorporation into human tissues, despite being a foreign antigen...
January 13, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nassib B Bueno, Ingrid V de Melo, Telma T Florêncio, Ana L Sawaya
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of replacing dietary long-chain triacylglycerols (LCTs) with medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) on body composition in adults. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), to determine whether individuals assigned to replace at least 5 g of dietary LCTs with MCTs for a minimum of 4 weeks show positive modifications on body composition. We systematically searched, through July 2013, the CENTRAL, EMBASE, LILACS, and MEDLINE databases for RCTs that investigated the effects of MCT intake on body composition in adults...
2015: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Lonnie M Lowery
The general public's view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol) choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune function, inflammation control, metabolic effects and even potential body composition and performance benefits...
September 2004: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Nancy R Rodriguez, Nancy M Di Marco, Susie Langley
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of the sports dietitian...
March 2009: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Elvira Isganaitis, Robert H Lustig
Rates of obesity and insulin resistance have climbed sharply over the past 30 years. These epidemics are temporally related to a dramatic rise in consumption of fast food; until recently, it was not known whether the fast food was driving the obesity, or vice versa. We review the unique properties of fast food that make it the ideal obesigenic foodstuff, and elucidate the mechanisms by which fast food intake contributes to obesity, emphasizing its effects on energy metabolism and on the central regulation of appetite...
December 2005: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
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