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21 papers 100 to 500 followers Studies on the neurobiological foundations of consciousness, and more!
By Abraham Nunes Psychiatry resident interested in computational neuroscience, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry.
David E J Linden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Alex A MacDonald, Lorina Naci, Penny A MacDonald, Adrian M Owen
In the past 15 years, rapid technological development in the field of neuroimaging has led to a resurgence of interest in the study of consciousness. However, the neural bases of consciousness and the boundaries of unconscious processing remain poorly understood. Anesthesia combined with functional neuroimaging presents a unique approach for studying neural responses as a function of consciousness. In this review we summarize findings from functional neuroimaging studies that have used anesthetic drugs to study cognition at different levels of conscious awareness...
February 2015: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Giulia Liberati, Thomas Hünefeldt, Marta Olivetti Belardinelli
Given the enormous consequences that the diagnosis of vegetative state (VS) vs. minimally conscious state (MCS) may have for the treatment of patients with disorders of consciousness, it is particularly important to empirically legitimate the distinction between these two discrete levels of consciousness. Therefore, the aim of this contribution is to review all the articles reporting statistical evidence concerning the performance of patients in VS vs. patients in MCS, on behavioral or neurophysiological measures...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jonathan Smallwood, Jonathan W Schooler
Conscious experience is fluid; it rarely remains on one topic for an extended period without deviation. Its dynamic nature is illustrated by the experience of mind wandering, in which attention switches from a current task to unrelated thoughts and feelings. Studies exploring the phenomenology of mind wandering highlight the importance of its content and relation to meta-cognition in determining its functional outcomes. Examination of the information-processing demands of the mind-wandering state suggests that it involves perceptual decoupling to escape the constraints of the moment, its content arises from episodic and affective processes, and its regulation relies on executive control...
January 3, 2015: Annual Review of Psychology
Anant Dattatray Dhanwate
With the advent of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques, the cardiopulmonary definition of death lost its significance in favor of brain death. Brain death is a permanent cessation of all functions of the brain in which though individual organs may function but lack of integrating function of the brain, lack of respiratory drive, consciousness, and cognition confirms to the definition that death is an irreversible cessation of functioning of the organism as a whole. In spite of medical and legal acceptance globally, the concept of brain death and brain-stem death is still unclear to many...
September 2014: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Hugo Lagercrantz
The newborn human infant is conscious at a minimal level. It is aware of its body, itself and to some extent of the outside world. It recognizes faces and vowels to which it has been exposed. It expresses emotions like joy. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the newborn brain shows highest activity in the somatosensory, auditory, and visual cortex but less activity in association area and the prefrontal cortex as compared with adults. There is an incomplete default mode network which is assumed to be related to consciousness...
October 2014: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
David Soto, Juha Silvanto
Classically, the operation of working memory (WM) has been strongly coupled with conscious states; it is thought that WM operates on conscious input and that we are conscious of the contents and operations of WM. Here, we re-evaluate the relationship between WM and conscious awareness in light of current data and question the views that awareness is mandatory for the operation of WM and that WM contents are necessarily linked to experiential states that are consciously accessible for perceptual report. We propose a novel framework for the relationship between WM and conscious awareness...
October 2014: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Rosella Ciurleo, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Disorders of consciousness, including the coma state, vegetative state and minimally conscious state, are among the least understood and least curable conditions in modern neurology. Structural or functional injuries may produce impairments in the neuronal circuits (the ascending reticular activating system and thalamocortical loops) responsible for maintaining the wakefulness state and awareness, associated with a change in neurotransmitter concentrations. Pharmacological agents that are able to restore the levels of neurotransmitters and, consequently, neural synaptic plasticity and functional connectivity of consciousness networks, may play an important role as drugs useful in improving the consciousness state...
November 2013: Drugs
Carol Di Perri, Johan Stender, Steven Laureys, Olivia Gosseries
Our understanding of the mechanisms of loss and recovery of consciousness, following severe brain injury or during anesthesia, is changing rapidly. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that patients with chronic disorders of consciousness and subjects undergoing general anesthesia present a complex dysfunctionality in the architecture of brain connectivity. At present, the global hallmark of impaired consciousness appears to be a multifaceted dysfunctional connectivity pattern with both within-network loss of connectivity in a widespread frontoparietal network and between-network hyperconnectivity involving other regions such as the insula and ventral tegmental area...
January 2014: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Geraint Rees
Jon Driver's scientific work was characterized by an innovative combination of new methods for studying mental processes in the human brain in an integrative manner. In our collaborative work, he applied this approach to the study of attention and awareness, and their relationship to neural activity in the human brain. Here I review Jon's scientific work that relates to the neural basis of human consciousness, relating our collaborative work to a broader scientific context. I seek to show how his insights led to a deeper understanding of the causal connections between distant brain structures that are now believed to characterize the neural underpinnings of human consciousness...
August 2013: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Bethany M McClenathan, Nitish V Thakor, Robert E Hoesch
Disorders of consciousness are due to failure of the arousal system. In this review, the authors introduce the spectrum of disorders of consciousness and describe the structures, projections, and neurotransmitters involved in the generation and maintenance of arousal. Next, they discuss the neurologic diseases frequently associated with arousal failure. Evaluation of patients with disorders of arousal is summarized, including the neurologic exam, electrophysiological studies, biochemical testing, and imaging modalities...
April 2013: Seminars in Neurology
Amabilis H Harrison, John F Connolly
Diagnoses and assessments of cognitive function in disorders of consciousness (DOC) are notoriously prone to error due to their reliance on behavioural measures. As a result, researchers have turned to functional neuroimaging and electrophysiological techniques with the goal of developing more effective methods of detecting awareness and assessing cognition in these patients. This article reviews functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroenchphalography (EEG)-based studies of cognition and consciousness in DOC, including assessment of basic sensory, perceptual, language, and emotional processing; studies for detection of conscious awareness; paradigms for the establishment of communication in the absence of behaviour; and functional connectivity studies...
September 2013: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Sid Kouider, Carsten Stahlhut, Sofie V Gelskov, Leonardo S Barbosa, Michel Dutat, Vincent de Gardelle, Anne Christophe, Stanislas Dehaene, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz
Infants have a sophisticated behavioral and cognitive repertoire suggestive of a capacity for conscious reflection. Yet, demonstrating conscious access in infants remains challenging, mainly because they cannot report their thoughts. Here, to circumvent this problem, we studied whether an electrophysiological signature of consciousness found in adults, corresponding to a late nonlinear cortical response [~300 milliseconds (ms)] to brief pictures, already exists in infants. We recorded event-related potentials while 5-, 12-, and 15-month-old infants (N = 80) viewed masked faces at various levels of visibility...
April 19, 2013: Science
Ralf-Peter Behrendt
An important assumption concerning the physiology of consciousness is that all varieties of conscious experience are closely related to each other and, hence, are subserved by the same neural mechanism. There are several considerations that lead us to implicate the hippocampus in the generation of conscious perception and, ultimately, of conscious experiences of all kinds. Firstly, conscious perception of external events is intricately linked with the formation of episodic (declarative) memories, a key function attributed to the hippocampus...
2013: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Adrian M Owen
How can we ever know, unequivocally, that another person is conscious and aware? Putting aside deeper philosophical considerations about the nature of consciousness itself, historically, the only reliable method for detecting awareness in others has been through a predicted behavioral response to an external prompt or command. The answer may take the form of spoken words or a nonverbal signal such as a hand movement or the blink of an eye, but it is this answer, and only this answer, that allows us to infer awareness...
2013: Annual Review of Psychology
J A Hobson, K J Friston
This paper presents a theoretical review of rapid eye movement sleep with a special focus on pontine-geniculate-occipital waves and what they might tell us about the functional anatomy of sleep and consciousness. In particular, we review established ideas about the nature and purpose of sleep in terms of protoconsciousness and free energy minimization. By combining these theoretical perspectives, we discover answers to some fundamental questions about sleep: for example, why is homeothermy suspended during sleep? Why is sleep necessary? Why are we not surprised by our dreams? What is the role of synaptic regression in sleep? The imperatives for sleep that emerge also allow us to speculate about the functional role of PGO waves and make some empirical predictions that can, in principle, be tested using recent advances in the modeling of electrophysiological data...
July 2012: Progress in Neurobiology
Ann B Butler
Consciousness, ranging from the primary, or perceptual, level to high levels that include a sense of self, can be identified in various organisms by a set of hallmarks that include behavioral, neural and phenomenal and/or informational. Behavioral hallmarks include those that indicate high cognitive abilities, such behavioral flexibility, verbal abilities, episodic memories, theory of mind, object constancy, transitive inference and multistability, all of which have been demonstrated in birds as well as in primates...
2012: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Mario Rosanova, Olivia Gosseries, Silvia Casarotto, Mélanie Boly, Adenauer G Casali, Marie-Aurélie Bruno, Maurizio Mariotti, Pierre Boveroux, Giulio Tononi, Steven Laureys, Marcello Massimini
Patients surviving severe brain injury may regain consciousness without recovering their ability to understand, move and communicate. Recently, electrophysiological and neuroimaging approaches, employing simple sensory stimulations or verbal commands, have proven useful in detecting higher order processing and, in some cases, in establishing some degree of communication in brain-injured subjects with severe impairment of motor function. To complement these approaches, it would be useful to develop methods to detect recovery of consciousness in ways that do not depend on the integrity of sensory pathways or on the subject's ability to comprehend or carry out instructions...
April 2012: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Hakwan Lau, David Rosenthal
Higher-order theories of consciousness argue that conscious awareness crucially depends on higher-order mental representations that represent oneself as being in particular mental states. These theories have featured prominently in recent debates on conscious awareness. We provide new leverage on these debates by reviewing the empirical evidence in support of the higher-order view. We focus on evidence that distinguishes the higher-order view from its alternatives, such as the first-order, global workspace and recurrent visual processing theories...
August 2011: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Roy F Baumeister, E J Masicampo, Kathleen D Vohs
Everyday intuitions suggest full conscious control of behavior, but evidence of unconscious causation and automaticity has sustained the contrary view that conscious thought has little or no impact on behavior. We review studies with random assignment to experimental manipulations of conscious thought and behavioral dependent measures. Topics include mental practice and simulation, anticipation, planning, reflection and rehearsal, reasoning, counterproductive effects, perspective taking, self-affirmation, framing, communication, and overriding automatic responses...
2011: Annual Review of Psychology
2015-02-03 00:42:24
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