Gregory M Miller, Christopher D Verrico, Amy Jassen, Martha Konar, Hong Yang, Helen Panas, Mary Bahn, Ryan Johnson, Bertha K Madras
Recently identified trace amine receptors are potential direct targets for drugs of abuse, including amphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). We cloned full-length rhesus monkey trace amine receptor 1 (rhTA(1)) that was 96% homologous to human TA(1). The trace amines tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine (PEA) and the monoamine transporter substrates (+/-)-amphetamine and (+/-)-MDMA stimulated cAMP accumulation in rhTA(1)-expressing cell lines, as measured by a cAMP response element-luciferase assay...
June 2005: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Johannes Just, Martin Mücke, Markus Bleckwenn
BACKGROUND: The incidence of initial prescriptions of opioids for chronic non-cancer pain rose by 37% in Germany from 2000 to 2010. Prescribing practice does not always conform with the recommendations of current guidelines. In the USA, 8-12% of patients with chronic non-cancer pain are opioid-dependent. METHODS: This review is based on publications retrieved by a selective PubMed search and on the German S3 guideline on the long-term use of opioids in non-cancer pain...
April 1, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Jolanta B Zawilska, Dariusz Andrzejczak
BACKGROUND: The last decade has seen a rapid and continuous growth in the availability and use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) across the world. Although various products are labeled with warnings "not for human consumption", they are intended to mimic psychoactive effects of illicit drugs of abuse. Once some compounds become regulated, new analogues appear in order to satisfy consumers' demands and at the same time to avoid criminalization. This review presents updated information on the second generation of NPS, introduced as replacements of the already banned substances from this class, focusing on their pharmacological properties and metabolism, routes of administration, and effects in humans...
December 1, 2015: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
James H Ho, George P Bailey, John R H Archer, Paul I Dargan, David M Wood
PURPOSE: Ethylphenidate is a novel psychoactive substance that is an analogue of methylphenidate. This paper describes its availability, patterns of use, and acute effects. METHODS: Searches of the scientific and grey literature (publicly accessible Internet resources) were undertaken, using the keywords "Ethylphenidate", "Ethyl phenidate", "Ethyl phenyl(piperidin-2-yl)acetate", and "Nopaine", to identify information on the prevalence and patterns of use, desired effects, and toxicity of ethylphenidate...
October 2015: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Nitin Chopra, Lon Hays
There have been very limited reports of the euphoria experienced under the influence of Coleus blumei--part of a large genus with similarities to various mints and herbs, naturally found in abundance and popular in home gardens. There have been reports of similar properties to Salvia divinorum, which contains the psychoactive neocleordane diterpene salvinorin-A. We present a case of a man in his twenties, with no significant known personal or family psychiatric history, presenting to an emergency room with a psychotic episode after the ingestion of C...
January 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Corey C Tsang, Mirella G Giudice
Nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, is approved in many countries including, but not limited to, Canada, the United States, Mexico, and the United Kingdom for the treatment of severe nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy. Clinical evidence is emerging for its use in managing pain conditions with different etiologies. We review the efficacy and safety of nabilone for various types of pain as well as its abuse potential, precautions and contraindications, and drug interactions; summarize pertinent clinical practice guidelines; and provide recommendations for dosing, monitoring, and patient education...
March 2016: Pharmacotherapy
O Mukarram, Y Hindi, G Catalasan, J Ward
Abuse of over the counter drugs often gets overlooked by health care providers. Loperamide is one such over the counter drug that is often abused by drug addicts. We present here a case of a young male attaining euphoria from taking massive doses of loperamide. He developed Torsades de Pointes and subsequent cardiac arrest. We found similarities in the progression of myocardial electrical conduction abnormalities among loperamide and other previously known arrhythmogenic drugs. We intend to raise concern over the ease of availability of such drugs over the counter and increase the index of suspicion for over the counter drug abuse from our experience...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
Marc T Swogger, Elaine Hart, Fire Erowid, Earth Erowid, Nicole Trabold, Kaila Yee, Kimberly A Parkhurst, Brittany M Priddy, Zach Walsh
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a psychoactive plant that has been used since at least 1836 in folk medicine in Southeast Asian countries. More recently, kratom has become widely available in the West and is used for both recreational and medicinal purposes. There has, however, been little scientific research into the short- and long-term effects of kratom in humans, and much of the information available is anecdotal. To supplement the increasing scientific understanding of kratom's pharmacology and research into its effects in animals, we report the results of a qualitative analysis of first-hand descriptions of human kratom use that were submitted to, and published by, a psychoactive substance information website (Erowid...
November 2015: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Matthias Liechti
Novel psychoactive substances are newly used designer drugs ("internet drugs", "research chemicals", "legal highs") potentially posing similar health risks to classic illicit substances. Chemically, many novel psychoactive substances can be classified as phenethylamines, amphetamines, synthetic cathinones, piperazines, pipradrols/piperidines, aminoindanes benzofurans, and tryptamines. Pharmacologically, these substances interact with various monoaminergic targets. Typically, stimulants inhibit the transport of dopamine and noradrenaline (pipradrols, pyrovalerone cathinones) or induce the release of these monoamines (amphetamines and methamphetamine-like cathinones), entactogens predominantly enhance serotonin release (phenylpiperazines, aminoindanes, para-substituted amphetamines, and MDMA-like cathinones) similar to MDMA (ecstasy), and hallucinogens (tryptamines, hallucinogenic phenethylamines) are direct agonists at serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors...
2015: Swiss Medical Weekly
Kathleen Meyers, Övgü Kaynak, Elena Bresani, Brenda Curtis, Ashley McNamara, Kristine Brownfield, Kimberly C Kirby
BACKGROUND: "Bath salts", a derivative of cathinone, a naturally occurring beta-ketone amphetamine analogue found in the leaves of the khat (Catha edulis) plant, is a potent class of designer drugs associated with significant medical and psychiatric consequences. They are commonly used among 20-29 year olds, a group with easy access to the Internet and an inclination to purchase online. Therefore, the Internet has the potential to play a significant role in the distribution and associated consequences of these "legal highs"...
July 2015: International Journal on Drug Policy
Krystyna Gołembiowska, Alexandra Jurczak, Katarzyna Kamińska, Karolina Noworyta-Sokołowska, Anna Górska
New psychoactive "designer drugs" are synthetic compounds developed to provide similar effects to illicit drugs of abuse, but not subjected to legal control. The rapidly changing legal status of novel psychoactive drugs triggers the development of new compounds, analogs of well-known amphetamine or mescaline. New designer drugs used as substitutes in ecstasy pills are the least investigated and can cause life-threatening effects on users. The aim of our research was to examine the effects of acute administration of 4-methoxyamphetamine (PMA, 5 and 10 mg/kg), 4-methoxy-N-methylamphetamine (PMMA, 5 and 10 mg/kg), and mephedrone (MEPH, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) on extracellular and tissue level of dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and their metabolites in rat brain, by microdialysis method in freely moving animals and HPLC...
April 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Marcus L Warner, Nellie C Kaufman, Oliver Grundmann
Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae), commonly known as kratom, is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. In recent years, kratom has gained popularity for use as a recreational drug across the globe. Relatively new to the illicit market and used in a manner different from its traditional applications, preparations of kratom are touted by many as a safe and legal psychoactive product that improves mood, relieves pain, and may provide benefits in opiate addiction...
January 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Michael F Weaver, John A Hopper, Erik W Gunderson
Recent designer drugs, also known as "legal highs," include substituted cathinones (e.g., mephedrone, methylone, and methylenedioxypyrovalerone, often referred to as "bath salts"); synthetic cannabinoids (SCs; e.g., Spice); and synthetic hallucinogens (25I-NBOMe, or N-bomb). Compound availability has evolved rapidly to evade legal regulation and detection by routine drug testing. Young adults are the primary users, but trends are changing rapidly; use has become popular among members of the military...
March 25, 2015: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Pieter A Cohen, John C Travis, Bastiaan J Venhuis
Pharmaceuticals and banned substances have been detected in hundreds of purportedly natural supplements. Recently, several athletes have been disqualified from competition after testing positive for the methamphetamine analog N,α-diethyl-phenylethylamine (N,α-DEPEA). Athletes have claimed they unknowingly consumed the banned stimulant in workout supplements. Three samples from different lot numbers of Craze, a workout supplement, were analyzed to detect the presence and concentration of N,α-DEPEA. Two labs independently identified N,α-DEPEA in the supplement using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to an LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer and UHPLC-quadruple-time-of-flight mass (Q-TOF) spectrometer, respectively...
July 2014: Drug Testing and Analysis
Zhentao Zhang, Alejandro Moreno
Paradichlorobenzene (PDB) is an aromatic compound found in several household insect repellents and deodorizers. Paradichlorobenzene may cause dependence and damage when inhaled or ingested. Prior cases of PDB neurotoxicity involved ingestion or inhalation of mothballs or occupational exposure. We report the first case of PDB neurotoxicity from chronic toilet bowl deodorizers ("toilet cake") sniffing. A 19-year-old woman, 4 weeks postpartum, presented with gradual mental status deterioration, lethargy, and general weakness for 2 weeks...
November 2014: Journal of Addiction Medicine
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