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Current drug trends

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By Christopher Cook, BA,CADC, SAP Addiction professional. LPC, CADC, CRNP- student, Interventionist, project manager, owner, Director, eval/refer for SUDs/Eating D/o's
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31548888/comparative-psychopharmacology-of-autism-and-psychotic-affective-disorders-suggests-new-targets-for-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Bernard J Crespi
The first treatments showing effectiveness for some psychiatric disorders, such as lithium for bipolar disorder and chlorpromazine for schizophrenia, were discovered by accident. Currently, psychiatric drug design is seen as a scientific enterprise, limited though it remains by the complexity of brain development and function. Relatively few novel and effective drugs have, however, been developed for many years. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how evolutionary biology can provide a useful framework for psychiatric drug development...
2019: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29966280/sales-and-advertising-channels-of-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-internet-social-networks-and-smartphone-apps
#2
REVIEW
Cristina Miliano, Giulia Margiani, Liana Fattore, Maria Antonietta De Luca
In the last decade, the trend of drug consumption has completely changed, and several new psychoactive substances (NPS) have appeared on the drug market as legal alternatives to common drugs of abuse. Designed to reproduce the effects of illegal substances like cannabis, ecstasy, cocaine, or ketamine, NPS are only in part controlled by UN conventions and represent an emerging threat to global public health. The effects of NPS greatly differ from drug to drug and relatively scarce information is available at present about their pharmacology and potential toxic effects...
June 29, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30634521/non-medical-use-of-novel-synthetic-opioids-a-new-challenge-to-public-health
#3
REVIEW
Barbara Lovrecic, Mercedes Lovrecic, Branko Gabrovec, Marco Carli, Matteo Pacini, Angelo G I Maremmani, Icro Maremmani
Background : In the last decade there has been a progressive increase in the use of new psychoactive substances (NPSs) that are not yet under international control. In particular, novel synthetic opioids (NSOs) have reappeared on the recreational drug market in the last few years. As a result, the use of NSOs has increased rapidly. This poses an emerging and demanding challenge to public health. Aim : To raise awareness among clinicians and other professionals about NPSs, especially NSOs, to summarize current knowledge about pharmacological properties, forms of NSO on the market, pattern of use, effects and consequences of use...
January 9, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31050051/drug-dealing-on-facebook-snapchat-and-instagram-a-qualitative-analysis-of-novel-drug-markets-in-the-nordic-countries
#4
Jakob Demant, Silje Anderdal Bakken, Atte Oksanen, Helgi Gunnlaugsson
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Internet use has changed drug dealing over the past decade owing to the emergence of darknet services. Yet, little is known about drug dealing in public online services. This study reports findings from a Nordic comparative study on social media drug dealing. It is the first in-depth study on the increase of digitally mediated drug dealing outside the cryptomarkets. DESIGN AND METHODS: A qualitative study using online ethnography and semi-structured interviews...
May 2019: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31591935/a-neurobehavioral-approach-to-addiction-implications-for-the-opioid-epidemic-and-the-psychology-of-addiction
#5
Antoine Bechara, Kent C Berridge, Warren K Bickel, Jose A Morón, Sidney B Williams, Jeffrey S Stein
Two major questions about addictive behaviors need to be explained by any worthwhile neurobiological theory. First, why do people seek drugs in the first place? Second, why do some people who use drugs seem to eventually become unable to resist drug temptation and so become "addicted"? We will review the theories of addiction that address negative-reinforcement views of drug use (i.e., taking opioids to alleviate distress or withdrawal), positive-reinforcement views (i.e., taking drugs for euphoria), habit views (i...
October 2019: Psychological Science in the Public Interest: a Journal of the American Psychological Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31547093/current-understanding-of-methamphetamine-associated-metabolic-changes-revealed-by-the-metabolomics-approach
#6
REVIEW
Minjeong Kim, Won-Jun Jang, Rupa Shakya, Boyeon Choi, Chul-Ho Jeong, Sooyeun Lee
Metabolomics is a powerful tool used in the description of metabolic system perturbations caused by diseases or abnormal conditions, and it usually involves qualitative and/or quantitative metabolome determination, accompanied by bioinformatics assessment. Methamphetamine is a psychostimulant with serious abuse potential and due to the absence of effective pharmacotherapy and a high recurrence potential, methamphetamine addiction is a grave issue. Moreover, its addiction mechanisms remain unclear, probably due to the lack of experimental models that reflect personal genetic variances and environmental factors determining drug addiction occurrence...
September 20, 2019: Metabolites
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29189144/therapeutic-use-of-%C3%AE-9-thc-and-cannabidiol-evaluation-of-a-new-extraction-procedure-for-the-preparation-of-cannabis-based-olive-oil
#7
Luca Morini, Giorgio Porro, Maurizio Liso, Angelo Groppi
BACKGROUND: Since 2013 Cannabis-based preparations, containing the two main cannabinoids of interest, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and cannabidiol (CBD), can be used for therapeutic purposes, such as palliative care, neurodegenerative disorder treatment and other therapies. The preparations may consist of a drug partition in sachets, capsules or through the extraction in certified olive oil. OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were: a) to develop and validate a new liquid chromatographictandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the identification and quantification of THC and CBD in olive oil; b) to evaluate the extraction efficiency and reproducibility of a new commercial extractor on the market...
2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/19896326/multicenter-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-parallel-group-study-of-the-efficacy-safety-and-tolerability-of-thc-cbd-extract-and-thc-extract-in-patients-with-intractable-cancer-related-pain
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jeremy R Johnson, Mary Burnell-Nugent, Dominique Lossignol, Elena Doina Ganae-Motan, Richard Potts, Marie T Fallon
This study compared the efficacy of a tetrahydrocannabinol:cannabidiol (THC:CBD) extract, a nonopioid analgesic endocannabinoid system modulator, and a THC extract, with placebo, in relieving pain in patients with advanced cancer. In total, 177 patients with cancer pain, who experienced inadequate analgesia despite chronic opioid dosing, entered a two-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Patients were randomized to THC:CBD extract (n = 60), THC extract (n = 58), or placebo (n = 59)...
February 2010: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31565631/phenibut-addiction-in-a-patient-with-substance-use-disorder
#9
Kan Hong Zheng, Afra Khan, Eduardo D Espiridion
Phenibut, a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analog, is a synthetic, nootropic GABAB receptor agonist used to treat anxiety, insomnia, alcohol withdrawal, and other conditions. The drug is licensed and widely used in Russia however, phenibut can be purchased through online vendors in other countries. The current literature on the effects of phenibut intoxication and withdrawal in humans is limited. In this case report, a 23-year-old male with a history of heavy phenibut and alcohol use presented to the emergency department with suicidal thoughts, somatic complaints, and seeking help with detoxification...
July 24, 2019: Curēus
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30364252/drug-interactions-with-new-synthetic-opioids
#10
REVIEW
Clara Pérez-Mañá, Esther Papaseit, Francina Fonseca, Adriana Farré, Marta Torrens, Magi Farré
Fentanyl, fentanyl analogs, and other new synthetic opioids (NSO) have burst onto the illegal drug market as new psychoactive substances (NPS). They are often sold as heroin to unsuspecting users and produce euphoria through their agonist action on μ- opioid receptors. Their high consumption, often combined with other substances, has led to multiple intoxications during recent years. In some countries, such as the United States, the consumption of opioids, whether for medical or recreational purposes, has become epidemic and is considered a public health problem...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25655145/novel-psychoactive-substances-of-interest-for-psychiatry
#11
Fabrizio Schifano, Laura Orsolini, G Duccio Papanti, John M Corkery
Novel psychoactive substances include synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone derivatives, psychedelic phenethylamines, novel stimulants, synthetic opioids, tryptamine derivatives, phencyclidine-like dissociatives, piperazines, GABA-A/B receptor agonists, a range of prescribed medications, psychoactive plants/herbs, and a large series of performance and image enhancing drugs. Users are typically attracted by these substances due to their intense psychoactive effects and likely lack of detection in routine drug screenings...
February 2015: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30308378/effect-of-ghb-use-and-ghb-induced-comas-on-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-functioning-in-humans
#12
Filipa Raposo Pereira, Minni T B McMaster, Nikki Polderman, Yvon D A T de Vries, Wim van den Brink, Guido A van Wingen
BACKGROUND: Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a recreational drug associated with increasing numbers of GHB-dependent patients and emergency attendances often related to GHB-induced comas. Working memory (WM) deficits have been reported in association with GHB use, and animal studies have shown that GHB induces oxidative stress in vulnerable WM-related brain areas such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, the effects of chronic GHB use and multiple GHB-induced comas on WM-related brain function in humans remains unknown...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30426556/prohedonic-properties-of-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-are-associated-with-changes-in-limbic-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Oliver G Bosch, Fabrizio Esposito, Dario Dornbierer, Robin von Rotz, Rainer Kraehenmann, Philipp Staempfli, Boris B Quednow, Erich Seifritz
OBJECTIVE: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an endogenous GHB-/GABA-B receptor agonist and a narcolepsy treatment. However, GHB is also abused for its prohedonic effects. On a neuronal level, it was shown that GHB increases regional cerebral blood flow in limbic areas such as the right anterior insula (rAI) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We aimed to further explore the association between the subjective and neuronal signatures of GHB. METHOD: We assessed subjective effects and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of an rAI- and an ACC-seed in 19 healthy male subjects after GHB (35 mg/kg p...
November 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30513473/chemsex-behaviours-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#14
Steven Maxwell, Maryam Shahmanesh, Mitzy Gafos
BACKGROUND: 'Chemsex' is the use of drugs before or during planned sexual events to facilitate, enhance, prolong and sustain the experience. Drugs associated with chemsex are methamphetamine, GHB/GBL, mephedrone, cocaine and ketamine. This review syntheses published research on the antecedents, behaviours and consequences associated with chemsex behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: Papers from high income countries which were published between January 2000 and September 2018 reporting the use of chemsex drugs before or during sex were identified through Medline, Web of Science, CINAHL and Central...
January 2019: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29722031/indirect-acting-strategy-of-opioid-action-instead-of-direct-receptor-activation-dual-acting-enkephalinase-inhibitors-denkis
#15
REVIEW
R B Raffa, J V Pergolizzi, R Taylor, M H Ossipov
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Although pain is one of the most common afflictions, it is often inadequately managed because the available analgesic options are relatively limited due to insufficient efficacy, unacceptable adverse effects or the potential for misuse or abuse. However, recent publications suggest that an alternative approach-indirect enhancement of endogenous pain-relieving pathways-might be desirable. We review this approach, in particular the dual enkephalinase inhibitors (DENKIs)...
August 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29949228/abuse-liability-and-therapeutic-potential-of-the-mitragyna-speciosa-kratom-alkaloids-mitragynine-and-7-hydroxymitragynine
#16
Scott E Hemby, Scot McIntosh, Francisco Leon, Stephen J Cutler, Christopher R McCurdy
Kratom, derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, is receiving increased attention as an alternative to traditional opiates and as a replacement therapy for opiate dependence. Mitragynine (MG) and 7-hydroxymitragynine (7-HMG) are major psychoactive constituents of kratom. While MG and 7-HMG share behavioral and analgesic properties with morphine, their reinforcing effects have not been examined to date. 7-HMG, but not MG, substituted for morphine self-administration in a dose-dependent manner in the rat self-administration paradigm...
September 2019: Addiction Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28484399/biochemical-benefits-diagnosis-and-clinical-risks-evaluation-of-kratom
#17
REVIEW
Dimy Fluyau, Neelambika Revadigar
BACKGROUND: Kratom ( Mitragyna speciosa ) is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. Kratom is also known as Thom, Thang, and Biak. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to manage pain and opioid withdrawal and to stave off fatigue. Kratom is actually consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (in form of tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/3285124/-designer-drugs-a-problem-in-clinical-toxicology
#18
REVIEW
J F Buchanan, C R Brown
'Designer drugs' are substances intended for recreational use which are derivatives of approved drugs so as to circumvent existing legal restrictions. The term as popularised by the lay press lacks precision. Contrary to the popular belief that 'designer drugs' are original creations, the majority of these agents are 'borrowed' from legitimate pharmaceutical research. They merely represent the most recent developments in the evolution of mind-altering chemicals. The most extensively studied class of psychoactive compounds is the phenylethylamines (mescaline analogues)...
January 1988: Medical Toxicology and Adverse Drug Experience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/15764732/primate-trace-amine-receptor-1-modulation-by-the-dopamine-transporter
#19
Gregory M Miller, Christopher D Verrico, Amy Jassen, Martha Konar, Hong Yang, Helen Panas, Mary Bahn, Ryan Johnson, Bertha K Madras
Recently identified trace amine receptors are potential direct targets for drugs of abuse, including amphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). We cloned full-length rhesus monkey trace amine receptor 1 (rhTA(1)) that was 96% homologous to human TA(1). The trace amines tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine (PEA) and the monoamine transporter substrates (+/-)-amphetamine and (+/-)-MDMA stimulated cAMP accumulation in rhTA(1)-expressing cell lines, as measured by a cAMP response element-luciferase assay...
June 2005: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27120492/dependence-on-prescription-opioids
#20
REVIEW
Johannes Just, Martin Mücke, Markus Bleckwenn
BACKGROUND: The incidence of initial prescriptions of opioids for chronic non-cancer pain rose by 37% in Germany from 2000 to 2010. Prescribing practice does not always conform with the recommendations of current guidelines. In the USA, 8-12% of patients with chronic non-cancer pain are opioid-dependent. METHODS: This review is based on publications retrieved by a selective PubMed search and on the German S3 guideline on the long-term use of opioids in non-cancer pain...
April 1, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
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