Michael J Li, Steven J Shoptaw
It is estimated that a majority of people who use psychostimulants, particularly methamphetamine (MA) and cocaine, experience withdrawal upon abstinence from sustained use. This review of clinical research reports the evidence regarding biomedical and behavioral treatments for psychostimulant withdrawal symptoms. It provides a framework for clinicians and scientists to increase impact on attenuating MA and cocaine withdrawal during initial and sustained abstinence. Articles reviewed included reports of controlled clinical trials (randomized or non-randomized) reporting at least one withdrawal symptom among the outcomes or specifically studying patients in withdrawal...
April 2023: Addiction
Pavel A Markin, Natalia E Moskaleva, Svetlana A Lebedeva, Sergey V Kozin, Ekaterina M Grigorevskikh, Larisa G Kolik, Tatyana A Gudasheva, Svetlana A Appolonova
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family with diverse psychopharmacological effects including antidepressant and anxiolytic actions. However, the clinical use of BDNF is limited due to its poor pharmacokinetic properties. The development of low-molecular-weight BDNF mimetics passing through the blood-brain barrier is an emerging strategy for improved managing psychiatric diseases. The present study characterizes a novel dipeptide mimetic of the 2nd BDNF loop named GTS-201, which exhibits psychotropic properties in experimental animal models of anxiety and alcohol dependence...
January 20, 2023: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Stephanie LeBlanc-Omstead, Elizabeth Anne Kinsella
It has become relatively common practice within health professional education to invite people who have used mental health and social care services (or service user educators) to share their stories with health professional learners and students. This paper reports on findings from a postcritical ethnographic study of the practice of service user involvement (SUI), in which we reflexively inquired into conceptualizations of service user educators' knowledge contributions to health professional education in the accounts of both service user- and health professional educators...
May 2023: Advances in Health Sciences Education
Maciej Cettler, Marzena Zielińska, Jowita Rosada-Kurasińska, Anna Kubica-Cielińska, Konrad Jarosz, Alicja Bartkowska-Śniatkowska
RATIONALE AND SCOPE OF THE GUIDELINES Pain is a subjective unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. Acute pain occurs irrespective of age and has a prevalence of about 5% of the general population. Surgical procedures and painful diagnostic procedures are the main causes of this unpleasant and dangerous phenomenon for hospitalized children. It should be remembered that maintaining homeostasis in a child undergoing surgery is also affected by provision of an adequate level of analgesia and sedation as well as nerve conduction block within the surgical site...
2022: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
Xin Ma, Wen Chen, Na-Na Yang, Lu Wang, Xiao-Wan Hao, Chun-Xia Tan, Hong-Ping Li, Cun-Zhi Liu
Neuropathic pain, caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory system, is common and distressing. In view of the high human and economic burden, more effective treatment strategies were urgently needed. Acupuncture has been increasingly used as an adjuvant or complementary therapy for neuropathic pain. Although the therapeutic effects of acupuncture have been demonstrated in various high-quality randomized controlled trials, there is significant heterogeneity in the underlying mechanisms. This review aimed to summarize the potential mechanisms of acupuncture on neuropathic pain based on the somatosensory system, and guided for future both foundational and clinical studies...
2022: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Andrew J Biedlingmaier, Timothy G Yovankin, Maju Mathew Koola, Michael Yanuck, Sajoy Purathumuriyil Varghese
There is evidence that mindfulness-based interventions are effective as stress-reduction techniques in people with various stressor-related disorders. Research also shows overall improvement in mental health well-being in practitioners of mindfulness. However, there is limited literature probing the potential negative impacts of mindfulness practice. Relapse is a major challenge in substance use disorders (SUDs), particularly for people with chronic pain. There is an overlap between SUDs and chronic pain, which share common pathophysiological pathways that could contribute to poor pain control and mental instability...
October 1, 2022: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Hongxiang Hong, Xu Lu, Qun Lu, Chao Huang, Zhiming Cui
Sinomenine is a natural compound extracted from the medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum. Its supplementation has been shown to present benefits in a variety of animal models of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, such as cerebral ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury (TBI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), epilepsy, depression, multiple sclerosis, morphine tolerance, and glioma. Therefore, sinomenine is now considered a potential agent for the prevention and/or treatment of CNS disorders...
2022: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Vedant N Hedau, Ashish P Anjankar
Psychedelics are hallucinogenic drugs that alter the state of consciousness substantially. They bring about psychological, auditory, and visual changes. The psychedelics act on the brain, implying that they have a powerful psychological impact. One of the main factors contributing to disability worldwide is pain. The majority of people deal with pain on a daily basis. Living with chronic pain affects daily life and has social implications. Chronic pain can be associated with any disease that may be genetic, idiopathic, or traumatic...
August 2022: Curēus
Valeria Catalani, Giuseppe Floresta, Michelle Botha, John Martin Corkery, Amira Guirguis, Alessandro Vento, Vincenzo Abbate, Fabrizio Schifano
Currently, increasing availability and popularity of designer benzodiazepines (DBZDs) constitutes a primary threat to public health. To assess this threat, the biological activity/potency of DBZDs was investigated using in silico studies. Specific Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models were developed in Forge™ for the prediction of biological activity (IC50 ) on the γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABA-AR) of previously identified classified and unclassified DBDZs. A set of new potential ligands resulting from scaffold hopping studies conducted with MOE® was also evaluated...
January 2023: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Glenn Lawyer, Petr S Bjerkan, Anders Hammarberg, Nitya Jayaram-Lindström, Johan Franck, Ingrid Agartz
BACKGROUND: Long-term amphetamine and methamphetamine dependence has been linked to cerebral blood perfusion, metabolic, and white matter abnormalities. Several studies have linked methamphetamine abuse to cortical grey matter reduction, though with divergent findings. Few publications investigate unmethylated amphetamine's potential effects on cortical grey matter. This work investigated if amphetamine dependent patients showed reduced cortical grey matter thickness. Subjects were 40 amphetamine dependent subjects and 40 healthy controls...
May 20, 2010: BMC Pharmacology
J Shindler, M Schachter, S Brincat, J D Parkes
Twenty patients with the narcoleptic syndrome were treated separately with dexamphetamine sulphate tablets 10 and 30 mg, Dexedrine Spansules 10 mg, mazindol 4 mg, and fencamfamin hydrochloride 60 mg daily. Each drug was given for four weeks and the effects compared. In these dosages the reported frequency of attacks of narcolepsy was roughly halved with each treatment, dexamphetamine 30 mg daily being only slightly more potent than 10 mg. The subjective effects of Dexedrine tablets and Spansules could not be distinguished by most patients...
April 20, 1985: British Medical Journal (1981-1988)
Brandon Presley, Bob Bianchi, John Coleman, Fran Diamond, Gerry McNally
Clandestine chemists have demonstrated an ability to convert commercially available pseudoephedrine formulations to methamphetamine. Some of these formulations have properties that manufacturers claim limit or block the extraction of pseudoephedrine and its direct conversion to methamphetamine. In this study, 3 commercially available pseudoephedrine formulations were evaluated for ease of extraction and conversion to methamphetamine using a common chemistry technique called the one-pot method that is frequently employed by clandestine chemists...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Jeffrey Gudin, Jeffrey Fudin
Buprenorphine is a Schedule III opioid analgesic with unique pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties that may be preferable to those of Schedule II full μ-opioid receptor agonists. The structure of buprenorphine allows for multimechanistic interactions with opioid receptors μ, δ, κ, and opioid receptor-like 1. Buprenorphine is considered a partial agonist with very high binding affinity for the μ-opioid receptor, an antagonist with high binding affinity for the δ- and κ-opioid receptors, and an agonist with low binding affinity for the opioid receptor-like 1 receptor...
June 2020: Pain and Therapy
Bernard J Crespi
The first treatments showing effectiveness for some psychiatric disorders, such as lithium for bipolar disorder and chlorpromazine for schizophrenia, were discovered by accident. Currently, psychiatric drug design is seen as a scientific enterprise, limited though it remains by the complexity of brain development and function. Relatively few novel and effective drugs have, however, been developed for many years. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how evolutionary biology can provide a useful framework for psychiatric drug development...
2019: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Cristina Miliano, Giulia Margiani, Liana Fattore, Maria Antonietta De Luca
In the last decade, the trend of drug consumption has completely changed, and several new psychoactive substances (NPS) have appeared on the drug market as legal alternatives to common drugs of abuse. Designed to reproduce the effects of illegal substances like cannabis, ecstasy, cocaine, or ketamine, NPS are only in part controlled by UN conventions and represent an emerging threat to global public health. The effects of NPS greatly differ from drug to drug and relatively scarce information is available at present about their pharmacology and potential toxic effects...
June 29, 2018: Brain Sciences
Barbara Lovrecic, Mercedes Lovrecic, Branko Gabrovec, Marco Carli, Matteo Pacini, Angelo G I Maremmani, Icro Maremmani
Background : In the last decade there has been a progressive increase in the use of new psychoactive substances (NPSs) that are not yet under international control. In particular, novel synthetic opioids (NSOs) have reappeared on the recreational drug market in the last few years. As a result, the use of NSOs has increased rapidly. This poses an emerging and demanding challenge to public health. Aim : To raise awareness among clinicians and other professionals about NPSs, especially NSOs, to summarize current knowledge about pharmacological properties, forms of NSO on the market, pattern of use, effects and consequences of use...
January 9, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jakob Demant, Silje Anderdal Bakken, Atte Oksanen, Helgi Gunnlaugsson
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Internet use has changed drug dealing over the past decade owing to the emergence of darknet services. Yet, little is known about drug dealing in public online services. This study reports findings from a Nordic comparative study on social media drug dealing. It is the first in-depth study on the increase of digitally mediated drug dealing outside the cryptomarkets. DESIGN AND METHODS: A qualitative study using online ethnography and semi-structured interviews...
May 2019: Drug and Alcohol Review
Antoine Bechara, Kent C Berridge, Warren K Bickel, Jose A Morón, Sidney B Williams, Jeffrey S Stein
Two major questions about addictive behaviors need to be explained by any worthwhile neurobiological theory. First, why do people seek drugs in the first place? Second, why do some people who use drugs seem to eventually become unable to resist drug temptation and so become "addicted"? We will review the theories of addiction that address negative-reinforcement views of drug use (i.e., taking opioids to alleviate distress or withdrawal), positive-reinforcement views (i.e., taking drugs for euphoria), habit views (i...
October 2019: Psychological Science in the Public Interest: a Journal of the American Psychological Society
Minjeong Kim, Won-Jun Jang, Rupa Shakya, Boyeon Choi, Chul-Ho Jeong, Sooyeun Lee
Metabolomics is a powerful tool used in the description of metabolic system perturbations caused by diseases or abnormal conditions, and it usually involves qualitative and/or quantitative metabolome determination, accompanied by bioinformatics assessment. Methamphetamine is a psychostimulant with serious abuse potential and due to the absence of effective pharmacotherapy and a high recurrence potential, methamphetamine addiction is a grave issue. Moreover, its addiction mechanisms remain unclear, probably due to the lack of experimental models that reflect personal genetic variances and environmental factors determining drug addiction occurrence...
September 20, 2019: Metabolites
Luca Morini, Giorgio Porro, Maurizio Liso, Angelo Groppi
BACKGROUND: Since 2013 Cannabis-based preparations, containing the two main cannabinoids of interest, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and cannabidiol (CBD), can be used for therapeutic purposes, such as palliative care, neurodegenerative disorder treatment and other therapies. The preparations may consist of a drug partition in sachets, capsules or through the extraction in certified olive oil. OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were: a) to develop and validate a new liquid chromatographictandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the identification and quantification of THC and CBD in olive oil; b) to evaluate the extraction efficiency and reproducibility of a new commercial extractor on the market...
2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
2019-10-19 00:56:05
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