Crystal L Barksdale, Eliseo Pérez-Stable, Joshua Gordon
Disparities in mental health have persisted or worsened despite our awareness of their existence, increased understanding of their causes, and efforts at reduction and mitigation. Although much is known, there is still much to be done in mental health research to meaningfully impact disparities. In November 2020, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Institute of Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) co-sponsored a virtual workshop to explore the complexities of mental health disparities, which revealed several gaps and opportunities for the field to pursue to advance mental health disparities research...
June 2022: American Journal of Psychiatry
Venetia Notara, Elissavet Vagka, Charalampos Gnardellis, Areti Lagiou
BACKGROUND: Nomophobia (No MObile PHone PhoBIA) refers to the worry or fear that individuals experience when they are without their mobile phone or they are unable to use it. The term was first coined in 2008 and it is considered a modern type of phobia. The aim of the present study was to retrieve and review the most relevant literature on the prevalence of nomophobia and its relationship with psychosocial and physical health among young adults. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted according the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) for original papers on the phenomenon of nomophobia in young adults using the Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q) as the main measuring instrument...
April 2021: Addiction & Health
Hamid Ahmadian-Moghadam, Mitra Sadat Sadat-Shirazi, Somaiyeh Azmoun, Reza Vafadoost, Solmaz Khalifeh, Mohammad Reza Zarrindast
BACKGROUND: Tramadol induces its unique effects through opioid pathways, but the exact mechanism is not known. The study aims to evaluate changes in the level of mu-opioid receptor (µOR), delta-opioid receptor (δOR), and phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (p-CREB) in the hippocampus (HPC) and amygdala (AL) areas of tramadol-treated rats. METHODS: For this purpose, a total of 36 male rats were divided into two main groups for chronic or acute tramadol exposure...
July 2021: Addiction & Health
Tahereh Afaghnia, Mohammad Nasim-Tajik, Elham Boushehri, Marzieh Nikparvar, Abdollah Gharibzade, Hossein Farshidi
BACKGROUND: Patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) receive anticoagulants, most commonly heparin to prevent thrombotic events during the procedure. Opioid addicts may require higher doses of heparin for PCI. We aimed to compare the effect of heparin on activated clotting time (ACT) between opioid addicts and non-addicts prior to and during PCI. METHODS: This comparative study included 107 patients scheduled for elective PCI, of whom 50 were opioid addicts and 57 non-addicts...
October 2021: Addiction & Health
Ecler Ercole Jaqua, Van Nguyen, Nicole Scherlie, Joshua Dreschler, Wessam Labib
With an estimated prevalence of 4%, substance abuse amongst persons who are 65 years and older is increasing. The most common substances abused are alcohol, prescription drugs such as opiates and benzodiazepines (BZD), and over-the-counter (OTC) medications. This increase is believed to be partially endorsed by the baby boomer generation, born between 1946 to 1964, who had significant exposure to alcohol and drugs at a younger age. Substance abuse is difficult to recognize in the older adults, but once identified, presents its own challenges as only 18% of substance abuse treatment programs are designed for this growing population...
January 2022: Addiction & Health
Mirmohammadali Mirramezani Alizamini, Yonghui Li, Jian-Jun Zhang, Jing Liang, Abbas Haghparast
AIM: This review aims to summarise the role of endocannabinoid system (ECS), incluing cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous lipid ligands in the modulation of methamphetamine (METH)/morphine-induced memory impairments. METHODS: Here, we utilized the results from researches which have investigated regulatory role of ECS (including cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists) on METH/morphine-induced memory impairments. RESULTS: Among the neurotransmitters, glutamate and dopamine seem to play a critical role in association with the ECS to heal the drug-induced memory damages...
March 4, 2022: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Joshua F Yarrow, Christine F Conover, Sean C McCoy, Judyta A Lipinska, Cesar A Santillana, John M Hance, Darryl F Cannady, Tisha D VanPelt, Joshua Sanchez, Bryan P Conrad, Jennifer E Pingel, Thomas J Wronski, Stephen E Borst
Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) now under development can protect against muscle and bone loss without causing prostate growth or polycythemia. 17β-Hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (trenbolone), a potent testosterone analog, may have SARM-like actions because, unlike testosterone, trenbolone does not undergo tissue-specific 5α-reduction to form more potent androgens. We tested the hypothesis that trenbolone-enanthate (TREN) might prevent orchiectomy-induced losses in muscle and bone and visceral fat accumulation without increasing prostate mass or resulting in adverse hemoglobin elevations...
April 2011: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Daniel G Donner, Grace E Elliott, Belinda R Beck, Andrew C Bulmer, Alfred K Lam, John P Headrick, Eugene F Du Toit
The increasing prevalence of obesity adds another dimension to the pathophysiology of testosterone (TEST) deficiency (TD) and potentially impairs the therapeutic efficacy of classical TEST replacement therapy. We investigated the therapeutic effects of selective androgen receptor modulation with trenbolone (TREN) in a model of TD with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Male Wistar rats (n=50) were fed either a control standard rat chow (CTRL) or a high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet. After 8 weeks of feeding, rats underwent sham surgery or an orchiectomy (ORX)...
January 2016: Endocrinology
Beltran Alvarez-Perez, Hervé Poras, Rafael Maldonado
Despite the increasing impact of opioid use disorders on society, there is a disturbing lack of effective medications for their clinical management. An interesting innovative strategy to treat these disorders consists in the protection of endogenous opioid peptides to activate opioid receptors, avoiding the classical opioid-like side effects. Dual enkephalinase inhibitors (DENKIs) physiologically activate the endogenous opioid system by inhibiting the enzymes responsible for the breakdown of enkephalins, protecting endogenous enkephalins and increasing their half-lives and physiological actions...
August 11, 2021: British Journal of Pharmacology
Amber N Edinoff, Juliana M Fort, Christina Singh, Sarah E Wagner, Jessica R Rodriguez, Catherine A Johnson, Elyse M Cornett, Kevin S Murnane, Adam M Kaye, Alan D Kaye
With emerging information about the potential for morbidity and reduced life expectancy with long-term use of opioids, it is logical to evaluate nonopioid analgesic treatments to manage pain states. Combinations of drugs can provide additive and/or synergistic effects that can benefit the management of pain states. In this regard, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) modulate nociceptive signals and have been studied for chronic pain treatment. Psilocybin, commonly known as "magic mushrooms", works at the serotonin receptor, 5-HT2A ...
May 18, 2022: Neurology International
Yue Zhao, Feng Qin, Shuang Han, Shu Li, Ying Zhao, Hongbo Wang, Jingwei Tian, Xiaobo Cen
Drug addiction is a chronic and relapsing brain disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking and continued drug use despite adverse consequences. The high prevalence and social burden of addiction is indisputable; however, the available intervention is insufficient. Abnormal gene expression is observed in reward-related brain regions in animal models of addiction. The modulation of gene expression and aberrant adaptation of neural networks attribute to the changes in brain function under repeated exposure to addictive drugs...
August 2022: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Maria Alías-Ferri, Manuela Pellegrini, Emilia Marchei, Roberta Pacifici, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Simona Pichini, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Esther Papaseit, Robert Muga, Francina Fonseca, Marta Torrens, Magí Farré
(1) Background: Since the beginning of the 21st century, the large number and wide chemical variety of new psychoactive substances (NPS) that enter the market every year has become a public health problem. Given the rapidity with which the drug market is changing, many NPS are not clinically investigated and their effects and health risks are unknown. Drug testing is a very useful tool for this purpose, but, unfortunately, it is not very widespread in individuals with opioid-use disorder under detoxification treatment...
April 22, 2022: Biology
Elisabet Navarro-Tapia, Jana Codina, Víctor José Villanueva-Blasco, Óscar García-Algar, Vicente Andreu-Fernández
New synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are emerging rapidly and continuously. Biological matrices are key for their precise detection to link toxicity and symptoms to each compound and concentration and ascertain consumption trends. The objective of this study was to determine the best human biological matrices to detect the risk-assessed compounds provided by The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction: AB-CHMINACA, ADB-CHMNACA, MDMB-CHMICA, and 5F-MDMB-PINACA. We carried out a systematic review covering 2015 up to the present date, including original articles assessing detection in antemortem human biological matrices with detailed validation information of the technique...
May 23, 2022: Biology
Joaquin E Douton, Nelli Horvath, Sara Mills-Huffnagle, Jennifer E Nyland, Andras Hajnal, Patricia S Grigson
Drug addiction is a chronic brain disease characterized by the uncontrolled use of a substance. Due to its relapsing nature, addiction is difficult to treat, as individuals can relapse following even long periods of abstinence and, it is during this time, that they are most vulnerable to overdose. In America, opioid overdose has been increasing for decades, making finding new treatments to help patients remain abstinent and prevent overdose deaths imperative. Recently, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have shown promise in reducing motivated behaviours for drugs of abuse...
March 2022: Addiction Biology
Rajita Sinha, Nia Fogelman, Stephanie Wemm, Gustavo Angarita, Dongju Seo, Gretchen Hermes
Chronic alcohol use increases risk of alcohol withdrawal symptoms (AW) and disrupts stress biology and resilient coping, thereby promoting excessive alcohol intake. Chronic alcohol intake and multiple alcohol detoxifications are known to impair brain medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and striatal functioning, regions involved in regulating stress, craving and alcohol intake. In two related studies, we examined whether AW predicts this functional brain pathology and whether Prazosin versus Placebo treatment may reverse these effects...
March 2022: Addiction Biology
Caterina Scuderi, Alexei Verkhratsky, Vladimir Parpura, Baoman Li
In the twentieth century, neuropsychiatric disorders have been perceived solely from a neurone-centric point of view, which considers neurones as the key cellular elements of pathological processes. This dogma has been challenged thanks to the better comprehension of the brain functioning, which, even if far from being complete, has revealed the complexity of interactions that exist between neurones and neuroglia. Glial cells represent a highly heterogeneous population of cells of neural (astroglia and oligodendroglia) and non-neural (microglia) origin populating the central nervous system...
2021: Advances in Neurobiology
Alexei Verkhratsky, Baoman Li, Caterina Scuderi, Vladimir Parpura
The role of astrocytes in the nervous system pathology was early on embraced by neuroscientists at end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, only to be pushed aside by neurone-centric dogmas during most of the twentieth century. However, the last decade of the twentieth century and the twenty-first century have brought the astroglial "renaissance", which has put astroglial cells as key players in pathophysiology of most if not all disorders of the nervous system and has regarded astroglia as a fertile ground for therapeutic intervention...
2021: Advances in Neurobiology
Ivan V Maly, Michael J Morales, Mikhail V Pletnikov
Ongoing research continues to add new elements to the emerging picture of involvement of astrocyte energy metabolism in the pathophysiology of major psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, mood disorders, and addictions. This review outlines what is known about the energy metabolism in astrocytes, the most numerous cell type in the brain, and summarizes the recent work on how specific perturbations of astrocyte bioenergetics may contribute to the neuropsychiatric conditions. The role of astrocyte energy metabolism in mental health and disease is reviewed on the organism, organ, and cell level...
2021: Advances in Neurobiology
Anna Kruyer, Michael D Scofield
Astroglia are key regulators of synaptic function, playing central roles in homeostatic ion buffering, energy dynamics, transmitter uptake, maintenance of neurotransmitter pools, and regulation of synaptic plasticity through release of neuroactive chemicals. Given the myriad of crucial homeostatic and signaling functions attributed to astrocytes and the variety of neurotransmitter receptors expressed by astroglia, they serve as prime cellular candidates for establishing maladaptive synaptic plasticity following drug exposure...
2021: Advances in Neurobiology
Matjaž Stenovec, Baoman Li, Alexei Verkhratsky, Robert Zorec
Ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, exerts rapid, potent and long-lasting antidepressant effect already after a single administration of a low dose into depressed individuals. Apart from targeting neuronal NMDARs essential for synaptic transmission, ketamine also interacts with astrocytes, the principal homoeostatic cells of the central nervous system. The cellular mechanisms underlying astrocyte-based rapid antidepressant effect are incompletely understood. Here we overview recent data that describe ketamine-dependent changes in astrocyte cytosolic cAMP activity ([cAMP]i ) and ketamine-induced modifications of stimulus-evoked Ca2+ signalling...
2021: Advances in Neurobiology
2022-05-28 21:27:33
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