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By Emily Fyffe I graduated from Le Moyne College with a bachelors in Biology in 2013. I love to learn and I enjoy reading primary scientific literature.
J Zimmer, B Lange, J-S Frick, H Sauer, K Zimmermann, A Schwiertz, K Rusch, S Klosterhalfen, P Enck
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Consisting of ≈10(14) microbial cells, the intestinal microbiota represents the largest and the most complex microbial community inhabiting the human body. However, the influence of regular diets on the microbiota is widely unknown. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We examined faecal samples of vegetarians (n=144), vegans (n=105) and an equal number of control subjects consuming ordinary omnivorous diet who were matched for age and gender. We used classical bacteriological isolation, identification and enumeration of the main anaerobic and aerobic bacterial genera and computed absolute and relative numbers that were compared between groups...
January 2012: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Daniel J Lamport, Caroline Saunders, Laurie T Butler, Jeremy Pe Spencer
Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ...
December 2014: Nutrition Reviews
Marian Glick-Bauer, Ming-Chin Yeh
This review examines whether there is evidence that a strict vegan diet confers health advantages beyond that of a vegetarian diet or overall healthy eating. Few studies include vegan subjects as a distinct experimental group, yet when vegan diets are directly compared to vegetarian and omnivorous diets, a pattern of protective health benefits emerges. The relatively recent inclusion of vegan diets in studies of gut microbiota and health allows us the opportunity to assess whether the vegan gut microbiota is distinct, and whether the health advantages characteristic of a vegan diet may be partially explained by the associated microbiota profile...
October 31, 2014: Nutrients
Gabrielle Turner-McGrievy, Metria Harris
Approximately 20 %-25 % of adults worldwide have metabolic syndrome. Vegetarian and vegan diets have demonstrated effectiveness in improving body weight, glycemic control, and cardiovascular risk factors, as compared with conventional therapeutic approaches, and are potentially useful in the prevention of metabolic syndrome. This article consists of two steps: (1) a review of the literature on studies examining vegetarian and vegan diets and metabolic syndrome and (2) a review of foods and nutrients that are protective against or associated with metabolic syndromes that may help to explain the beneficial effects of plant-based dietary approaches for metabolic syndrome...
2014: Current Diabetes Reports
Timothy J Key, Paul N Appleby, Francesca L Crowe, Kathryn E Bradbury, Julie A Schmidt, Ruth C Travis
BACKGROUND: Vegetarian diets might affect the risk of cancer. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to describe cancer incidence in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in a large sample in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: This was a pooled analysis of 2 prospective studies including 61,647 British men and women comprising 32,491 meat eaters, 8612 fish eaters, and 20,544 vegetarians (including 2246 vegans). Cancer incidence was followed through nationwide cancer registries...
July 2014: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Lap Tai Le, Joan Sabaté
Vegetarians, those who avoid meat, and vegans, additionally avoiding dairy and eggs, represent 5% and 2%, respectively, of the US population. The aim of this review is to assess the effects of vegetarian diets, particularly strict vegetarian diets (i.e., vegans) on health and disease outcomes. We summarized available evidence from three prospective cohorts of Adventists in North America: Adventist Mortality Study, Adventist Health Study, and Adventist Health Study-2. Non-vegetarian diets were compared to vegetarian dietary patterns (i...
May 27, 2014: Nutrients
R Pawlak, S E Lester, T Babatunde
Individuals following vegetarian diets are at risk for developing vitamin B12 deficiency owing to suboptimal intake. As vitamin B12 is essential for the synthesis of nucleic acids, erythrocytes and in the maintenance of myelin, deficiency may result in a variety of symptoms. Some of these symptoms may be severe while others may be irreversible. The objective of this review was to assess vitamin B12 deficiency, based on reported serum vitamin B12, among individuals adhering to different types of vegetarian diets...
May 2014: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Peter Clarys, Tom Deliens, Inge Huybrechts, Peter Deriemaeker, Barbara Vanaelst, Willem De Keyzer, Marcel Hebbelinck, Patrick Mullie
The number of studies comparing nutritional quality of restrictive diets is limited. Data on vegan subjects are especially lacking. It was the aim of the present study to compare the quality and the contributing components of vegan, vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian and omnivorous diets. Dietary intake was estimated using a cross-sectional online survey with a 52-items food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) were calculated as indicators for diet quality...
March 24, 2014: Nutrients
H M Crockart
Well planned vegetarian diets effectively meet Recommended Dietary Allowances and are a 'healthy' alternative to meat eating. Lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets have similar nutrient composition to omnivore diets. Vegan diets may be low in vitamin B 12. The fat content of the vegan diet is significantly lower and the polyunsaturated:saturated fatty acid ratio higher than in the omnivore diet. The fibre content of the vegan diet is about twice that of the lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet which is about three times that of the omnivore diet...
June 1995: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
K E Bradbury, F L Crowe, P N Appleby, J A Schmidt, R C Travis, T J Key
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated...
February 2014: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Serena Tonstad, Edward Nathan, Keiji Oda, Gary Fraser
Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6...
November 20, 2013: Nutrients
Patricia A Dyett, Joan Sabaté, Ella Haddad, Sujatha Rajaram, David Shavlik
This study aimed to investigate health belief as a major motive for diet and lifestyle behaviors of 100 vegans in the United States; and to determine congruence with selected health and nutrition outcomes. Response data from an administered questionnaire was analyzed. Statistical analyses determined the most common factors influencing diet choice; the number of vegans practicing particular lifestyle behaviors; body mass index; and prevalence of self-reported chronic disease diagnoses. Nutrient intakes were analyzed and assessed against Dietary Reference Intakes...
August 2013: Appetite
L T Ho-Pham, B Q Vu, T Q Lai, N D Nguyen, T V Nguyen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The effect of vegan diet on bone loss has not been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the association between veganism and bone loss in postmenopausal women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study was designed as a prospective longitudinal investigation with 210 women, including 105 vegans and 105 omnivores. Femoral neck (FN) bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 2008 and 2010 by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR4500). The incidence of vertebral fracture was ascertained by X-ray report...
January 2012: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Heather I Katcher, Hope R Ferdowsian, Valerie J Hoover, Joshua L Cohen, Neal D Barnard
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Vegetarian and vegan diets are effective in preventing and treating several chronic diseases. However, their acceptability outside a clinical trial setting has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to determine the acceptability of a worksite vegan nutrition program and its effects on health-related quality of life and work productivity. METHODS: Employees of a major insurance corporation with a body mass index > or =25 kg/m(2) and/or a previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes received either weekly group instruction on a low-fat vegan diet (n = 68) or received no diet instruction (n = 45) for 22 weeks...
2010: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
L T Ho-Pham, P L T Nguyen, T T T Le, T A T Doan, N T Tran, T A Le, T V Nguyen
SUMMARY: This cross-sectional study showed that, although vegans had lower dietary calcium and protein intakes than omnivores, veganism did not have adverse effect on bone mineral density and did not alter body composition. INTRODUCTION: Whether a lifelong vegetarian diet has any negative effect on bone health is a contentious issue. We undertook this study to examine the association between lifelong vegetarian diet and bone mineral density and body composition in a group of postmenopausal women...
December 2009: Osteoporosis International
Neal D Barnard, Joshua Cohen, David J A Jenkins, Gabrielle Turner-McGrievy, Lise Gloede, Amber Green, Hope Ferdowsian
BACKGROUND: Low-fat vegetarian and vegan diets are associated with weight loss, increased insulin sensitivity, and improved cardiovascular health. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of a low-fat vegan diet and conventional diabetes diet recommendations on glycemia, weight, and plasma lipids. DESIGN: Free-living individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet (n = 49) or a diet following 2003 American Diabetes Association guidelines (conventional, n = 50) for 74 wk...
May 2009: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
P K Newby
The objective of this article is to review the epidemiologic literature examining the role of plant foods and plant-based diets in the prevention of childhood obesity. Available data suggest a protective effect of ready-to-eat cereal on risk of obesity, although prospective studies are still needed. Studies on fruit and vegetables; grains other than cereal; high-protein foods, including beans, legumes, and soy; fiber; and plant-based dietary patterns are inconsistent or generally null. The evidence base is limited, and most studies are fraught with methodologic limitations, including cross-sectional design, inadequate adjustment for potential confounders, and lack of consideration of reporting errors, stage of growth, and genetic influences...
May 2009: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Winston J Craig
Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease...
May 2009: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Neal D Barnard, Joshua Cohen, David J A Jenkins, Gabrielle Turner-McGrievy, Lise Gloede, Brent Jaster, Kim Seidl, Amber A Green, Stanley Talpers
OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether a low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Individuals with type 2 diabetes (n = 99) were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet (n = 49) or a diet following the American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines (n = 50). Participants were evaluated at baseline and 22 weeks. RESULTS: Forty-three percent (21 of 49) of the vegan group and 26% (13 of 50) of the ADA group participants reduced diabetes medications...
August 2006: Diabetes Care
M Rosell, P Appleby, E Spencer, T Key
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have shown that vegetarians and vegans are leaner than omnivores. Longitudinal data on weight gain in these groups are sparse. OBJECTIVE: We investigated changes in weight and body mass index (BMI) over a 5-year period in meat-eating, fish-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men and women in the UK. DESIGN: Self-reported anthropometric, dietary and lifestyle data were collected at baseline in 1994-1999 and at follow-up in 2000-2003; the median duration of follow-up was 5...
September 2006: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
2015-01-25 02:36:07
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