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By Rajesh Purushothaman Additional Professor of Orthopaedics, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India
Melvin C Makhni, Jamal N Shillingford, Joseph L Laratta, Seung-Jae Hyun, Yongjung J Kim
The prevalence of patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) has been reported as high as 68%. ASD often leads to significant pain and disability. Recent emphasis has been placed on sagittal plane balance and restoring normal sagittal alignment with regards to the three dimensional deformity of ASD. Optimal sagittal alignment has been known to increase spinal biomechanical efficiency, reduce energy expenditure by maintaining a stable posture with improved load absorption, influence better bony union, and help to decelerate adjacent segment deterioration...
March 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
Sabrina Donzelli, Fabio Zaina, Monia Lusini, Salvatore Minnella, Stefano Negrini
BACKGROUND: The most important factor discriminating juvenile (JIS) from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the risk of deformity progression. Brace treatment can change natural history, even when risk of progression is high. The aim of this study was to compare the end of growth results of JIS subjects, treated after 10 years of age, with final results of AIS. METHODS: <AbstractText Label="DESIGN" NlmCategory="METHODS">prospective observational controlled cohort study nested in a prospective database...
2014: Scoliosis
Stefano Negrini, Sabrina Donzelli, Monia Lusini, Salvatore Minnella, Fabio Zaina
BACKGROUND: Recently an RCT confirmed brace efficacy in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Previously, a Cochrane review suggested also producing studies according to the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) criteria on the effectiveness of bracing for AIS. Even if the SRS criteria propose a prospective design, until now only one out of 6 published studies was prospective. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of bracing plus exercises following the SRS and the international Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT) criteria for AIS conservative treatment...
August 6, 2014: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Theofanis Tsiligiannis, Theodoros Grivas
Idiopathic scoliosis, a common disorder of lateral displacement and rotation of vertebral bodies during periods of rapid somatic growth, has many effects on respiratory function. Scoliosis results in a restrictive lung disease with a multifactorial decrease in lung volumes, displaces the intrathoracic organs, impedes on the movement of ribs and affects the mechanics of the respiratory muscles. Scoliosis decreases the chest wall as well as the lung compliance and results in increased work of breathing at rest, during exercise and sleep...
2012: Scoliosis
Tomasz Kotwicki, Joanna Chowanska, Edyta Kinel, Dariusz Czaprowski, Marek Tomaszewski, Piotr Janusz
Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the growing spine, affecting 2%-3% of adolescents. Although benign in the majority of patients, the natural course of the disease may result in significant disturbance of body morphology, reduced thoracic volume, impaired respiration, increased rates of back pain, and serious esthetic concerns. Risk of deterioration is highest during the pubertal growth spurt and increases the risk of pathologic spinal curvature, increasing angular value, trunk imbalance, and thoracic deformity...
2013: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
Se-Il Suk
The pedicle is a power nucleus of the vertebra and offers a secure grip of all 3 columns. Pedicle screw instrumentation has advantages of rigid fixation with improved three-dimensional (3D) correction and it is accepted as a reliable method with a high margin of safety. Accurate placement of the pedicle screws is important to reduce possible irreversible complications. Many methods of screw insertion have been reported. The author has been using the K-wire method coupled with the intraoperative single posteroanterior and lateral radiographs, which is the most safe, accurate and fast method...
June 2011: Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
Farhaan Altaf, Alexander Gibson, Zaher Dannawi, Hilali Noordeen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2013: BMJ: British Medical Journal
David Malfair, Anne K Flemming, Marcel F Dvorak, Peter L Munk, Alexandra T Vertinsky, Manraj K Heran, Doug A Graeb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2010: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Dror Ovadia
In 1983 Howard King presented his classification system for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) based on the experience with Harrington rod instrumentation. Curves were divided into five types and guidelines and recommendations for which levels should be instrumented were given to preserve motion as much as possible. As segmental instrumentation systems began to gain favor over the Harrington rods this system failed and led to the development of a new classification system which was presented by Lawrence Lenke in 2001...
February 2013: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
Nicholas D Fletcher, Robert W Bruce
Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS) may be associated with long-term pulmonary morbidity, which is not commonly seen in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Initial evaluation is based on determining any underlying etiology related to congenital or syndromic conditions. Assessing the impact of scoliosis on thoracic development may help guide treatment, which is often required at a young age in these children to prevent irreversible pulmonary insufficiency. Treatment is based on multiple factors but may include non-surgical strategies, such as casting or bracing, along with growth-sparing surgical procedures using growing rods or chest wall expansion...
June 2012: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Steven W Hwang, Amer F Samdani, Mark Tantorski, Patrick Cahill, Jason Nydick, Anthony Fine, Randal R Betz, M Darryl Antonacci
OBJECT: Several studies have characterized the relationship among postoperative thoracic, lumbar, and pelvic alignment in the sagittal plane. However, little is known of the relationship between postoperative thoracic kyphosis and sagittal cervical alignment in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) treated with all pedicle screw constructs. The authors examined this relationship and associated factors. METHODS: A prospective database of pediatric patients with AIS undergoing spinal fusion between 2003 and 2005 was reviewed for those who received predominantly pedicle screw constructs for Lenke Type 1 or Type 2 curves...
November 2011: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Federico Canavese, Katia Turcot, Vincenzo De Rosa, Geraldo de Coulon, André Kaelin
The aim of this study is to quantify the changes in the sagittal alignment of the cervical spine in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis following posterior spinal fusion. Patients eligible for study inclusion included those with a diagnosis of mainly thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated by means of posterior multisegmented hook and screw instrumentation. Pre and post-operative anterior-posterior and lateral radiographs of the entire spine were reviewed to assess the changes of cervical sagittal alignment...
July 2011: European Spine Journal
Jae Hyuk Yang, Amit Wasudeo Bhandarkar, Barani Rathanvelu, Jin Ho Hwang, Jae Young Hong, Hitesh N Modi, Seung Woo Suh
PURPOSE: To analyze the changes in the curve extent, pattern and the fusion level in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients who undergo delayed surgery instead of early surgery. METHODS: Thirty-five immature AIS patients whose radiographs demonstrated an initial primary curve of more than 40° with a subsequent increase of 10° before attaining skeletal maturity with brace were enrolled. The initial and the final radiographs taken before surgery were compared to assess the changes in curve extent, pattern and the fusion levels as recommended by King's, Lenke's and Suk's guidelines...
December 2014: European Spine Journal
Zhijian Sun, Guixing Qiu, Yu Zhao, Shigong Guo, Yipeng Wang, Jianguo Zhang, Jianxiong Shen
PURPOSE: To analyze risk factors for an increase in proximal junctional angle (PJA) after posterior selective thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curve fusion in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). METHODS: AIS patients that underwent selective posterior TL/L curve fusion with a minimum of 2-year follow-up were identified. Demographic and radiographic data were collected before surgery, at first erect after surgery and at final follow-up. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the relation of PJA changes during follow-up and eight potential risk factors, including locations of upper instrumented vertebra (UIV), locations of lower instrumented vertebra (LIV), length of fusion segments, types of pedicle screw alignment, lumbar lordosis (LL) at first erect after surgery, LL changes before and after surgery, sagittal vertical axis (SVA) at first erect after surgery and SVA changes before and after surgery...
February 2015: European Spine Journal
Devlin G Morrison, Amanda Chan, Doug Hill, Eric C Parent, Edmond H M Lou
PURPOSE: To investigate the accuracy and reliability of the Cobb angle, the spinous process angle (SPA), and apical vertebral rotation (AVR) for measuring adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), and to evaluate the correlations between these measurements. METHODS: A retrospective study of two sets of standing posteroanterior radiographs of patients with AIS was performed. The first set was 59 consecutive patients with AIS with Cobb angles <45° and the second set was 25 patients with Cobb angles >45°...
February 2015: European Spine Journal
Jonathan A Harris, Oscar H Mayer, Suken A Shah, Robert M Campbell, Sriram Balasubramanian
PURPOSE: The combined spine and rib cage deformity in scoliosis is best described as a thoracic deformity, and recent advances in imaging have enabled better definition of three-dimensional (3D) deformity of the thorax in scoliosis. However, a comprehensive report that summarizes the published thorax deformity quantification parameter studies is lacking in the orthopaedic literature. METHODS: An extensive literature review on the quantification of thorax deformity was performed, and a total of 25 thorax deformity parameters were compiled into eight independent categories based on their similarities of deformity assessment...
December 2014: European Spine Journal
Shallu Sharma, Thomas Andersen, Chunsen Wu, Haolin Sun, Yu Wang, Ebbe S Hansen, Cody E Bünger
STUDY DESIGN: A correlation study. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to determine the correlation between radiologic and cosmetic indices of trunk and shoulder balance before and after scoliosis surgery in Lenke 1C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and to determine whether postoperative trunk shift is affiliated with worsening of the patients' cosmesis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Achieving a symmetrical appearance with truncal and shoulder balance is of prime importance to adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients and their surgeons...
October 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Ron El-Hawary, Chukwudi Chukwunyerenwa
Scoliosis is a spinal deformity that can be seen in children of all ages. It is most commonly seen as an adolescent idiopathic condition. Progressive scoliosis between 25° and 45° before skeletal and physiologic maturity can be treated with a brace, whereas progressive scoliosis greater than 50° should be treated surgically. For children younger than 10 years, it is important to not only prevent scoliosis from worsening but to also maintain the growth of the spine and chest wall through the use of growth-friendly surgical techniques...
December 2014: Pediatric Clinics of North America
M Timothy Hresko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
Peter F Sturm, Jennifer M Anadio, Ozgur Dede
As the undesired results of early spinal fusion have become apparent, "growth-friendly" management methods for early onset scoliosis have been increasing during recent years. Current literature supports the use of repeated corrective cast applications as the initial management for most early onset progressive spinal deformities as either definitive treatment or as a temporizing measure. If casting is not an option or the deformity cannot be controlled via casting, one of the growth-friendly instrumentation techniques is chosen...
October 2014: Orthopedic Clinics of North America
2015-01-13 12:37:50
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