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By Tom Wassmer Assistant Professor of Biology at Siena Heights University in Adrian, Michigan
Yu Sun Bin, Svetlana Postnova, Peter A Cistulli
Jetlag is a combination of travel fatigue and circadian misalignment resulting from air travel across time zones. Routinely recommended interventions based on circadian science include timely exposure to light and darkness (scheduled sleep), but the real-world effectiveness of these and other non-circadian strategies is unknown. We systematically reviewed the evidence for non-pharmacological interventions for jetlag. PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched. Studies reviewed 1) involved human participants undergoing air travel with a corresponding shift in the external light-dark cycle; 2) administered a non-pharmacological intervention; 3) had a control or comparison group; and 4) examined outcomes such as jetlag symptoms, sleep, cognitive/physical performance, mood, fatigue, or circadian markers...
February 2019: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Alistair Dawson
Although it is well known that body temperature (Tb) is higher during the day in diurnal birds than at night, no data are available regarding exactly how Tb varies during a 24-h period, how this differs under different photoperiods, and how it responds to a change in photoperiod. This study used implanted temperature loggers in starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris) to address these questions. The duration of elevated Tb was directly related to photoperiod, but the amplitude of the daily cycle was significantly greater under shorter photoperiods...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Graham R McGinnis, Martin E Young
Robust circadian rhythms in metabolic processes have been described in both humans and animal models, at the whole body, individual organ, and even cellular level. Classically, these time-of-day-dependent rhythms have been considered secondary to fluctuations in energy/nutrient supply/demand associated with feeding/fasting and wake/sleep cycles. Renewed interest in this field has been fueled by studies revealing that these rhythms are driven, at least in part, by intrinsic mechanisms and that disruption of metabolic synchrony invariably increases the risk of cardiometabolic disease...
2016: Nature and Science of Sleep
Martin Cremer, Kerstin Jost, Anna Gensmer, Isabelle Pramana, Edgar Delgado-Eckert, Urs Frey, Sven M Schulzke, Alexandre N Datta
Process C (internal clock) and Process S (sleep-wake homeostasis) are the basis of sleep-wake regulation. In the last trimester of pregnancy, foetal heart rate is synchronized with the maternal circadian rhythm. At birth, this interaction fails and an ultradian rhythm appears. Light exposure is a strong factor influencing the synchronization of sleep-wake processes. However, little is known about the effects of phototherapy on the sleep rhythm of premature babies. It was hypothesized that sleep in preterm infants would not differ during phototherapy, but that a maturation effect would be seen...
October 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
Dorela D Shuboni, Amna A Agha, Thomas K H Groves, Andrew J Gall
Melatonin is a hormone rhythmically secreted at night by the pineal gland in vertebrates. In diurnal mammals, melatonin is present during the inactive phase of the rest/activity cycle, and in primates it directly facilitates sleep and decreases body temperature. However, the role of the pineal gland for the promotion of sleep at night has not yet been studied in non-primate diurnal mammalian species. Here, the authors directly examined the hypothesis that the pineal gland contributes to diurnality in Nile grass rats by decreasing activity and increasing sleep at night, and that this could occur via effects on circadian mechanisms or masking, or both...
July 2016: Behavioural Processes
Harini C Krishnan, Lisa C Lyons
Circadian clocks evolved under conditions of environmental variation, primarily alternating light dark cycles, to enable organisms to anticipate daily environmental events and coordinate metabolic, physiological, and behavioral activities. However, modern lifestyle and advances in technology have increased the percentage of individuals working in phases misaligned with natural circadian activity rhythms. Endogenous circadian oscillators modulate alertness, the acquisition of learning, memory formation, and the recall of memory with examples of circadian modulation of memory observed across phyla from invertebrates to humans...
September 2015: Learning & Memory
Vincent van der Vinne, Jenke A Gorter, Sjaak J Riede, Roelof A Hut
Endogenous daily (circadian) rhythms allow organisms to anticipate daily changes in the environment. Most mammals are specialized to be active during the night (nocturnal) or day (diurnal). However, typically nocturnal mammals become diurnal when energetically challenged by cold or hunger. The circadian thermo-energetics (CTE) hypothesis predicts that diurnal activity patterns reduce daily energy expenditure (DEE) compared with nocturnal activity patterns. Here, we tested the CTE hypothesis by quantifying the energetic consequences of relevant environmental factors in mice...
August 2015: Journal of Experimental Biology
Shaohui Wu, Roberto Refinetti, Loke T Kok, Roger R Youngman, Gadi V P Reddy, Fang-Sen Xue
Daily distributions of eclosion and mating activities of Pseudopidorus fasciata Walker (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) were recorded under natural and various laboratory conditions. Eclosion of this insect exhibited circadian gating in constant darkness (DD) but not in constant light (LL) at 28°C. Under natural conditions, the majority of adults emerged in midmorning with an eclosion peak around 1000 hours. The eclosion distribution was significantly affected by ambient temperature but not by photoperiod under laboratory conditions...
December 2014: Environmental Entomology
Micaela Martinez-Bakker, Barbara Helm
Biological rhythms, from circadian control of cellular processes to annual cycles in life history, are a main structural element of biology. Biological rhythms are considered adaptive because they enable organisms to partition activities to cope with, and take advantage of, predictable fluctuations in environmental conditions. A flourishing area of immunology is uncovering rhythms in the immune system of animals, including humans. Given the temporal structure of immunity, and rhythms in parasite activity and disease incidence, we propose that the intersection of chronobiology, disease ecology, and evolutionary biology holds the key to understanding host-parasite interactions...
June 2015: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
T Porkka-Heiskanen
The state of sleep consists of different phases that proceed in successive, tightly regulated order through the night forming a physiological program, which for each individual is different but stabile from one night to another. Failure to accomplish this program results in feeling of unrefreshing sleep and tiredness in the morning. The pro- gram core is constructed by genetic factors but regulated by circadian rhythm and duration and intensity of day time brain activity. Many environmental factors modulate sleep, including stress, health status and ingestion of vigilance-affecting nutrients or medicines (e...
June 2014: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
Elaine K H Tham, Shane Lindsay, M Gareth Gaskell
Two experiments investigated effects of sleep on consolidation and integration of novel form-meaning mappings using size congruity and semantic distance paradigms. Both paradigms have been used in previous studies to measure automatic access to word meanings. When participants compare semantic or physical font size of written word-pairs (e.g. BEE-COW), judgments are typically faster if relative sizes are congruent across both dimensions. Semantic distance effects are also found for wellestablished words, with semantic size judgements faster for pairs that differ substantially on this dimension...
May 2015: Neuropsychologia
Lingling Ma, Jun Ma, Kanyan Xu
Space travelers are reported to experience circadian rhythm disruption during spaceflight. However, how the space environment affects circadian rhythm is yet to be determined. The major focus of this study was to investigate the effect of spaceflight on the Drosophila circadian clock at both the behavioral and molecular level. We used China's Shenzhou-9 spaceship to carry Drosophila. After 13 days of spaceflight, behavior tests showed that the flies maintained normal locomotor activity rhythm and sleep pattern...
2015: PloS One
Arnaud Da Silva, Mihai Valcu, Bart Kempenaers
Artificial night lighting is expanding globally, but its ecological consequences remain little understood. Animals often use changes in day length as a cue to time seasonal behaviour. Artificial night lighting may influence the perception of day length, and may thus affect both circadian and circannual rhythms. Over a 3.5 month period, from winter to breeding, we recorded daily singing activity of six common songbird species in 12 woodland sites, half of which were affected by street lighting. We previously reported on analyses suggesting that artificial night lighting affects the daily timing of singing in five species...
May 5, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Sarah H Albani, Marina M Andrawis, Rio Jeane H Abella, John T Fulghum, Naghmeh Vafamand, Theodore C Dumas
The late postnatal period in rats is marked by numerous changes in perceptual and cognitive abilities. As such, age-related variation in cognitive test performance might result in part from disparate sensitivities to environmental factors. To better understand how testing conditions might interact with age, we assessed anxiety behavior on an elevated plus maze (EPM) in juvenile rats around 3 weeks of age under diverse testing conditions. Plasma corticosterone and neuronal activation patterns in the forebrain were examined after maze exposure...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Till Roenneberg, Lena K Keller, Dorothee Fischer, Joana L Matera, Céline Vetter, Eva C Winnebeck
Our lives are structured by the daily alternation of activity and rest, of wake and sleep. Despite significant advances in circadian and sleep research, we still lack answers to many of the most fundamental questions about this conspicuous behavioral pattern. We strongly believe that investigating this pattern in entrained conditions, real-life and daily contexts-in situ-will help the field to elucidate some of these central questions. Here, we present two common approaches for in situ investigation of human activity and rest: the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) and actimetry...
2015: Methods in Enzymology
Ian C Webb, Michael N Lehman, Lique M Coolen
Here, we review work over the past two decades that has indicated drug reward is modulated by the circadian system that generates daily (i.e., 24h) rhythms in physiology and behavior. Specifically, drug-self administration, psychomotor stimulant-induced conditioned place preference, and locomotor sensitization vary widely across the day in various species. These drug-related behavioral rhythms are associated with rhythmic neural activity and dopaminergic signaling in the mesocorticolimbic pathways, with a tendency toward increased activity during the species typical wake period...
May 1, 2015: Physiology & Behavior
T P Semenova, L A Spiridonova, N M Zakharova
The seasonal peculiarities of the circadian activity of hibernator, Yakutian long tail ground squirrels (S. undulatus) (n = 35) and non hibernator, Wistar rats (n = 35), were studied. The locomotor activity was registered in each subject individually during 5-17 days by means of "Animex" in the different periods of annual cycle. It was shown that ground squirrels were animals with daily type of activity. On the contrary, the Wistar rats demonstrated nocturne type of locomotors activity. The active period in rats was longer than in ground squirrels...
September 2014: Rossiĭskii Fiziologicheskiĭ Zhurnal Imeni I.M. Sechenova
Tanya L Leise
The challenging problems presented by noisy biological oscillators have led to the development of a great variety of methods for accurately estimating rhythmic parameters such as period and amplitude. This chapter focuses on wavelet-based methods, which can be quite effective for assessing how rhythms change over time, particularly if time series are at least a week in length. These methods can offer alternative views to complement more traditional methods of evaluating behavioral records. The analytic wavelet transform can estimate the instantaneous period and amplitude, as well as the phase of the rhythm at each time point, while the discrete wavelet transform can extract the circadian component of activity and measure the relative strength of that circadian component compared to those in other frequency bands...
2015: Methods in Enzymology
Alexandra Pokhilko, Oliver Ebenhöh
Plants synthesize sucrose in source tissues (mainly mature leafs) and supply it for growth of sink tissues (young leafs). Sucrose is derived from photosynthesis during daytime and from starch at night. Because the diurnal regulation of sucrose fluxes is not completely understood, we built a mathematical model designed to reproduce all key experimental observations. For this, assumptions were made about the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulations, which are all motivated by experimental facts. The key regulators in our model are two kinases (SnRK1 and osmo-sensitive kinase OsmK) under the control of the circadian clock...
March 6, 2015: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Selma Masri, Kenichiro Kinouchi, Paolo Sassone-Corsi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The interplay between circadian rhythm and cancer has been suggested for more than a decade based on the observations that shift work and cancer incidence are linked. Accumulating evidence implicates the circadian clock in cancer survival and proliferation pathways. At the molecular level, multiple control mechanisms have been proposed to link circadian transcription and cell-cycle control to tumorigenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: The circadian gating of the cell cycle and subsequent control of cell proliferation is an area of active investigation...
January 2015: Current Opinion in Oncology
2015-01-03 07:02:50
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