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Clinical decision making

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15 papers 0 to 25 followers decision making in clinical scenarios, decision aids, decision support tools
By Jamie Jarmul Md / PhD student at UNC - Chapel Hill, PhD in Health Policy and Management
Satish M Mahajan, Prabir Burman, Ana Newton, Paul A Heidenreich
One of the goals of the Precision Medicine Initiative launched in the United States in 2016 is to use innovative tools and sources in data science. We realized this goal by implementing a use case that identified patients with heart failure at Veterans Health Administration using data from the Electronic Health Records from multiple health domains between 2005 and 2013. We applied a regularized logistic regression model and predicted 30-day readmission risk for 1210 unique patients. Our validation cohort resulted in a C-statistic of 0...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Dian A Chase, Sherry Baron, Joan S Ash
Clinical decision support systems (CDS) have an important role in the implementation of precision medicine, particularly for pharmacogenomics. This study examines potential factors for their acceptance by primary care clinicians. For this qualitative study we purposively selected five U.S. primary care sites with a variety of sizes, electronic health record vendors, and patients. We interviewed an average of seven clinicians per site. Clinicians placed a low priority on incorporating pharmacogenomics into practice...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Björn Stollenwerk, Sergio Iannazzo, Kerry Cooper, Vasily Belozeroff
AIMS: This study explored the use of a value-based pricing approach for the new calcimimetic etelcalcetide indicated for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients receiving hemodialysis. It used the US payer perspective and applied the cost-effectiveness framework. Because etelcalcetide is an intravenous therapy that can be titrated for individual patients, and because its utilization is yet to be assessed in real world settings, a range of plausible doses were estimated for etelcalcetide to define a range of prices...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
Jonathan C Hong, Ron Blankstein, Leslee J Shaw, William V Padula, Alejandro Arrieta, Jonathan A Fialkow, Roger S Blumenthal, Michael J Blaha, Harlan M Krumholz, Khurram Nasir
This review evaluates the cost-effectiveness of using coronary artery calcium (CAC) to guide long-term statin therapy compared with treating all patients eligible for statins according to 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol management guidelines for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The authors used a microsimulation model to compare costs and effectiveness from a societal perspective over a lifetime horizon. Both strategies resulted in similar costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)...
August 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Douglas K Owens, Evelyn P Whitlock, Jillian Henderson, Michael P Pignone, Alex H Krist, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Susan J Curry, Karina W Davidson, Mark Ebell, Matthew W Gillman, David C Grossman, Alex R Kemper, Ann E Kurth, Michael Maciosek, Albert L Siu, Michael L LeFevre
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) develops evidence-based recommendations about preventive care based on comprehensive systematic reviews of the best available evidence. Decision models provide a complementary, quantitative approach to support the USPSTF as it deliberates about the evidence and develops recommendations for clinical and policy use. This article describes the rationale for using modeling, an approach to selecting topics for modeling, and how modeling may inform recommendations about clinical preventive services...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Haiyan Qu, Richard M Shewchuk, Graciela Alarcón, Liana Fraenkel, Amye Leong, Maria Dall'Era, Jinoos Yazdany, Jasvinder A Singh
OBJECTIVE: Numerous factors can impede or facilitate patients' medication decision-making and adherence to physicians' recommendations. Little is known about how patients and physicians jointly view issues that affect the decision-making process. Our objective was to derive an empirical framework of patient-identified facilitators to lupus medication decision-making from key stakeholders (including 15 physicians, 5 patients/patient advocates, and 8 medical professionals) using a patient-centered cognitive mapping approach...
December 2016: Arthritis Care & Research
Simon Turner, Stephen Morris, Jessica Sheringham, Emma Hudson, Naomi J Fulop
BACKGROUND: A range of evidence informs healthcare decision-making, from formal research findings to 'soft intelligence' or local data, as well as practical experience or tacit knowledge. However, cultural and organisational factors often prevent the translation of such evidence into practice. Using a multi-level framework, this project will analyse how interactions between the evidence available and processes at the micro (individual/group) and meso (organisational/system) levels influence decisions to introduce or diffuse innovations in acute and primary care within the National Health Service in the UK...
April 5, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
Andrea C Tricco, Huda M Ashoor, Roberta Cardoso, Heather MacDonald, Elise Cogo, Monika Kastner, Laure Perrier, Ann McKibbon, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Sharon E Straus
BACKGROUND: Knowledge translation (KT, also known as research utilization, and sometimes referring to implementation science) is a dynamic and iterative process that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange, and ethically sound application of knowledge to improve health. A KT intervention is one which facilitates the uptake of research. The long-term sustainability of KT interventions is unclear. We aimed to characterize KT interventions to manage chronic diseases that have been used for healthcare outcomes beyond 1 year or beyond the termination of initial grant funding...
April 21, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
J D Belsey
Although the statistical strength of direct comparative randomized controlled trials is generally acknowledged, the particular demands of therapeutic decision making will often require indirect comparisons to be made, based on pooled data from multiple trials. As for all post-hoc analyses, the process of indirect comparison runs the risk of introducing significant bias into the results and consequently a robust statistical approach is required, in order to minimise the risk. To address this problem, a range of different methodologies have been developed over the past twenty years, using both frequentist and Bayesian models...
February 2015: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Marjorie C Weiss, Jo Platt, Ruth Riley, Betty Chewning, Gordon Taylor, Susan Horrocks, Andrea Taylor
UNLABELLED: Aim The aims of this study were twofold: (a) to explore whether specific components of shared decision making were present in consultations involving nurse prescribers (NPs), pharmacist prescribers (PPs) and general practitioners (GPs) and (b) to relate these to self-reported patient outcomes including satisfaction, adherence and patient perceptions of practitioner empathy. BACKGROUND: There are a range of ways for defining and measuring the process of concordance, or shared decision making as it relates to decisions about medicines...
September 2015: Primary Health Care Research & Development
Ayala Kobo-Greenhut, Amos Notea, Meir Ruach, Erez Onn, Yehunatan Hasin
Present medical practice encourages management according to written guidelines, protocols, and structured procedures (GPPs). Daily medical practice includes instances in which "leaping" from one patient management routine to another is a must. We define "frozen patient management", when patient management leaping was required but was not performed. Frozen patient management may cause significant damage to patient safety and health and the treatment quality. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of GPP-guided medical practice and gives an explanation of the problem of frozen patient management in light of quality engineering, control engineering, and learning processes...
2014: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Isabel de la Torre-Díez, Borja Martínez-Pérez, Miguel López-Coronado, Javier Rodríguez Díaz, Miguel Maldonado López
The growing importance that mobile devices have in daily life has also reached health care and medicine. This is making the paradigm of health care change and the concept of mHealth or mobile health more relevant, whose main essence is the apps. This new reality makes it possible for doctors who are not specialist to have easy access to all the information generated in different corners of the world, making them potential keepers of that knowledge. However, the new daily information exceeds the limits of the human intellect, making Decision Support Systems (DSS) necessary for helping doctors to diagnose diseases and also help them to decide the attitude that has to be taken towards these diagnoses...
January 2015: Journal of Medical Systems
Joost de Folter, Hulya Gokalp, Joanna Fursse, Urvashi Sharma, Malcolm Clarke
BACKGROUND: Changes in daily habits can provide important information regarding the overall health status of an individual. This research aimed to determine how meaningful information may be extracted from limited sensor data and transformed to provide clear visualization for the clinicians who must use and interact with the data and make judgments on the condition of patients. We ascertained that a number of insightful features related to habits and physical condition could be determined from usage and motion sensor data...
2014: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Huiqin Yang, Carl Thompson, Martin Bland
BACKGROUND: Time pressure is common in acute healthcare and significantly influences clinical judgement and decision making. Despite nurses' judgements being studied since the 1960s, the empirical picture of how time pressure impacts on nurses' judgement strategies and outcomes remain undeveloped. This paper aims to assess alterations in nurses' judgement strategies and outcomes under time pressure in a simulated acute care setting. METHODS: In a simulated acute care environment, ninety-seven nurses were exposed to 25 clinical scenarios under time pressured and no time pressured conditions...
November 15, 2014: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Robert J Volk, Navkiran K Shokar, Viola B Leal, Robert J Bulik, Suzanne K Linder, Patricia Dolan Mullen, Richard M Wexler, Gurjeet S Shokar
BACKGROUND: Although research suggests that patients prefer a shared decision making (SDM) experience when making healthcare decisions, clinicians do not routinely implement SDM into their practice and training programs are needed. Using a novel case-based strategy, we developed and pilot tested an online educational program to promote shared decision making (SDM) by primary care clinicians. METHODS: A three-phased approach was used: 1) development of a conceptual model of the SDM process; 2) development of an online teaching case utilizing the Design A Case (DAC) authoring template, a well-tested process used to create peer-reviewed web-based clinical cases across all levels of healthcare training; and 3) pilot testing of the case...
November 1, 2014: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
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