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27 papers 100 to 500 followers
Neal D Barnard, David M Goldman, James F Loomis, Hana Kahleova, Susan M Levin, Stephen Neabore, Travis C Batts
Studies suggest that endurance athletes are at higher-than-average risk for atherosclerosis and myocardial damage. The ability of plant-based regimens to reduce risk and affect performance was reviewed. The effect of plant-based diets on cardiovascular risk factors, particularly plasma lipid concentrations, body weight, and blood pressure, and, as part of a healthful lifestyle, reversing existing atherosclerotic lesions, may provide a substantial measure of cardiovascular protection. In addition, plant-based diets may offer performance advantages...
January 10, 2019: Nutrients
Paul D Loprinzi, Emily Frith, Meghan K Edwards
OBJECTIVE: Emerging research demonstrates that aerobic-based physical activity is favourably associated with episodic memory function. Despite resistance exercises being associated with a multitude of health outcomes, independent of aerobic physical activity, less research has examined the effects of resistance exercise on episodic memory function. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review to examine the extent to which resistance exercise may be associated with episodic memory function...
January 24, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
C Ranasinghe, A P Hills, G R Constantine, G Finlayson, P Katulanda, N A King
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is rising globally. T2DM is particularly problematic in South Asia with an estimated 10-15% of Sri Lankans diagnosed with the disease. Exercise is known to improve blood glucose, lipid profiles, blood pressure and adiposity, key goals in the management of T2DM. However, much of the evidence to date has been gained from white Caucasians who have a different body composition and disease profile compared to South Asians...
January 24, 2018: BMC Public Health
Jesús Vera, Raimundo Jiménez, Amador García-Ramos, David Cárdenas
SIGNIFICANCE: The positive association between intraocular pressure (IOP) and relative maximum force may have relevance for exercise recommendations when IOP is a concern. PURPOSE: The relationship between exercise and IOP has been approached in several studies. However, the influence of muscle function on IOP remains underexplored. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the maximal mechanical capabilities of muscles to generate force, velocity, and power with IOP...
February 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Timothy J Suchomel, Sophia Nimphius, Christopher R Bellon, Michael H Stone
This review covers underlying physiological characteristics and training considerations that may affect muscular strength including improving maximal force expression and time-limited force expression. Strength is underpinned by a combination of morphological and neural factors including muscle cross-sectional area and architecture, musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate coding, motor unit synchronization, and neuromuscular inhibition. Although single- and multi-targeted block periodization models may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, concepts within each model must be considered within the limitations of the sport, athletes, and schedules...
April 2018: Sports Medicine
Maha Sellami, Wissem Dhahbi, Lawrence D Hayes, Goran Kuvacic, Mirjana Milic, Johnny Padulo
The current study examine the effects of combined sprint and resistance training on serum total testosterone (TT), sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and cortisol (C), at rest, and in response to the Wingate Anaerobic-Test (WAnT) in 21 and 41 years old men. Forty moderately-trained men were randomly assigned to a young trained (YT), young control (YC), middle-aged trained (MAT), and middle-aged control (MAC) group. Before (P1), and after (P2) training, blood samples were collected at rest and after exercise...
April 2018: Steroids
K Hidayat, G-C Chen, Y Wang, Z Zhang, X Dai, I M Y Szeto, L-Q Qin
BACKGROUND: Older adults experience age-related physiological changes that affect body weight and body composition. In general, nutrition and exercise have been identified as potent stimulators of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Milk proteins are excellent sources of all the essential amino acids and may represent an ideal protein source to promote muscle anabolism in older adults undergoing resistance training. However, several randomized control trials (RCTs) have yielded mixed results on the effects of milk proteins supplementation in combination with resistance training on body weight and composition...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
C A Nowson, C Service, J Appleton, J A Grieger
OBJECTIVES: There has been little evaluation of the evidence relating dietary factors to functional capacity in older adults. The aims were to i) conduct a systematic review of studies assessing dietary factors in relation to six key functional indicators which impact on quality of life in adults ≥65 yrs: non-fatal cardiovascular events, cognition, mental health, falls and fractures, physical health (muscle mass, strength) and frailty; and ii) assess if there was sufficient evidence to devise food-based dietary recommendations...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Natsuki Hasegawa, Shumpei Fujie, Naoki Horii, Eri Miyamoto-Mikami, Katsunori Tsuji, Masataka Uchida, Takafumi Hamaoka, Izumi Tabata, Motoyuki Iemitsu
PURPOSE: Aerobic training (AT) and high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) reduce arterial stiffness, whereas resistance training (RT) induces deterioration of or no change in arterial stiffness. However, the molecular mechanism of these effects of different exercise modes remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the difference of different exercise effects on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling pathway and arterial stiffness in rats and humans. METHODS: In the animal study, forty 10-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sedentary control (CON), AT (treadmill running, 60 min at 30 m·min, 5 d·wk for 8 wk), RT (ladder climbing, 8-10 sets per day, 3 d·wk for 8 wk), and HIIT (14 repeats of 20-s swimming session with 10-s pause between sessions, 4 d·wk for 6 wk from 12-wk-old) groups (n = 10 in each group)...
June 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Huimin Yan, Joseph R Pierce, Kimberly B Myers, Katrina D Dubose, Gabriel S Dubis, Charles J Tanner, Robert C Hickner
Poor suppression of lipolysis and blunted increase in blood flow after meal ingestion in obese adults may indicate resistance to the antilipolytic action of insulin. Exercise may be used to normalize lipolytic responses to food intake by increasing insulin sensitivity. PURPOSE: To determine if acute bouts of aerobic exercise and/or excise training alter lipolytic and blood flow responses to food intake in lean (LN) and obese (OB) children. METHODS: Sixty-five children (9-11 yr) were randomized into acute exercise (EX: 16 LN and 28 OB) or control (CON: 9 LN and 12 OB) groups that exercised (EX), or rested (CON) between standardized breakfast and lunch...
June 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Ragesh B Thandassery, Aldo J Montano-Loza
Most widely recognized complications in cirrhotic patients include ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, kidney dysfunction, and hepatocellular carcinoma; however, malnutrition and muscle wasting (sarcopenia) constitute common complications which negatively impact survival, quality of life, and response to stressors, such as infection and surgery in patients with cirrhosis. Despite the important role that malnutrition and sarcopenia play in the prognosis of patients with cirrhosis, they are frequently overlooked, in part because nutritional assessment can be a difficult task in patients with cirrhosis due to fluid retention and/or overweight...
June 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Jin Zhou, Bin Liu, Chun Liang, Yangxin Li, Yao-Hua Song
Skeletal muscle wasting occurs in a variety of diseases including diabetes, cancer, Crohn's disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), disuse, and denervation. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is involved in mediating the wasting effect. To date, a causal relationship between TNF-α signaling and muscle wasting has been established in animal models. However, results from clinical trials are conflicting. This is partly due to the fact that other factors such as TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are also involved in skeletal muscle wasting...
May 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Diane L Damiano, Cristiane Zampieri, Jie Ge, Ana Acevedo, John Dsurney
This small clinical trial utilized a novel rehabilitation strategy, rapid-resisted elliptical training, in an effort to increase motor, and thereby cognitive, processing speed in ambulatory individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). As an initial step, multimodal functional abilities were quantified and compared in 12 ambulatory adults with and 12 without TBI. After the baseline assessment, the group with TBI participated in an intensive 8-week daily exercise program using an elliptical trainer and was reassessed after completion and at an 8-week follow-up...
August 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Hugo Ribeiro Zanetti, Lucas Gonçalves da Cruz, Camilo Luís Monteiro Lourenço, Fernando de Freitas Neves, Mário Leon Silva-Vergara, Edmar Lacerda Mendes
The purpose of this study is to analyse the effect of 12 weeks of non-linear resistance training (NLRT) on anthropometry, muscle strength and inflammatory biomarkers in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (PIHIV). Thirty previously sedentary PIHIVs were randomized into the NLRT (n = 15) and control (CON, n = 15) groups. NLRT group were submitted to 12 weeks of training, whereas the CON group maintained their daily habits. At baseline and after 12 weeks, both groups underwent anthropometric evaluations and blood sampling for the analysis of inflammatory biomarkers...
November 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Katarina Marcinko, Sarah R Sikkema, M Constantine Samaan, Bruce E Kemp, Morgan D Fullerton, Gregory R Steinberg
OBJECTIVE: Endurance exercise training reduces insulin resistance, adipose tissue inflammation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), an effect often associated with modest weight loss. Recent studies have indicated that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) lowers blood glucose in individuals with type 2 diabetes independently of weight loss; however, the organs affected and mechanisms mediating the glucose lowering effects are not known. Intense exercise increases phosphorylation and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in muscle, adipose tissue and liver...
December 2015: Molecular Metabolism
Pablo Alba-Martín, T Gallego-Izquierdo, Gustavo Plaza-Manzano, Natalia Romero-Franco, Susana Núñez-Nagy, Daniel Pecos-Martín
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of conservative treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome with physical exercise. [Subjects and Methods] A computer-based review conducted of four databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PEDro, and the University Library) was completed based on the inclusion criteria of patellofemoral pain syndrome patients treated with physical exercise methods and examination with self-reported pain and/or functional questionnaires. [Results] The findings of ten clinical trials of moderate to high quality were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of physical exercise as conservative management for patellofemoral pain syndrome...
July 2015: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Fernando Ribeiro, Rui Costa, José Mesquita-Bastos
Hypertension is a very prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of resistant hypertension, i.e., uncontrolled hypertension with 3 or more antihypertensive agents including 1 diuretic, is between 5% and 30% in the hypertensive population. The causes of resistant hypertension are multifactorial and include behavioral and biological factors, such as non-adherence to pharmacological treatment. All current treatment guidelines highlight the positive role of physical exercise as a non-pharmacological tool in the treatment of hypertension...
February 26, 2015: World Journal of Cardiology
P Zimmer, W Bloch, A Schenk, E M Zopf, U Hildebrandt, F Streckmann, J Beulertz, C Koliamitra, F Schollmayer, F Baumann
Exercise has been proven to reduce the risk and progression of various diseases, such as cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that exercise affects the cytokine profile and changes distribution and function of tumor-competitive immune cells. Initial studies have shown that different exercise interventions are associated with epigenetic modifications in different tissues and cell types, such as muscle, fat, brain and blood. The present investigation examines the effect of an intense endurance run (half marathon) on global epigenetic modifications in natural killer (NK) cells in 14 cancer patients compared to 14 healthy controls...
June 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Ryo Tanaka, Junya Ozawa, Nobuhiro Kito, Hideki Moriyama
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of exercise therapy on the walking ability of individuals with knee osteoarthritis. DATA SOURCES: Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) were identified by searching through PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. All literature published to October 2014 were included in the search. REVIEW METHODS: Data were collected from RCTs that compared the effects of exercise therapy on walking ability with the effects of no intervention or psychoeducational intervention in participants with knee osteoarthritis...
January 2016: Clinical Rehabilitation
Chloe Lau Ha Chung, Shamala Thilarajah, Dawn Tan
OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the evidence investigating the effectiveness of resistance training on strength and physical function in people with Parkinson's disease. DATA SOURCES: Seven electronic databases (COCHRANE, CINAHL, Medline ISI, Psycinfo, Scopus, Web of Science ISI and Embase) were systematically searched for full-text articles published in English between 1946 and November 2014 using relevant search terms. REVIEW METHODS: Only randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of resistance training on muscle strength and physical function in people with Parkinson's disease were considered...
January 2016: Clinical Rehabilitation
2015-02-25 02:39:31
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