Brijesh G Taksande, Shreesha Nambiar, Shardha Patil, Milind J Umekar, Manish M Aglawe, Nandkishor R Kotagale
Alcohol is one of the most widely abused recreational drugs, largely linked with serious health and social concerns. However, the treatment options for alcohol-use disorders have limited efficacy and exhibit a range of adverse drug reactions. Large numbers of preclinical studies have projected a biogenic amine, agmatine as a promising potential treatment option for drug addiction, including alcoholism. In the present study, administration of agmatine (20-40 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in significant inhibition of ethanol self-administration in the right p-VTA in operant conditioning paradigm...
November 2019: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Ceren Sahin Ozkartal, Erdem Tuzun, Cem Ismail Kucukali, Canan Ulusoy, Murat Giris, Feyza Aricioglu
Innate immunity activation in the central nervous system (CNS) is known to contribute to the development of depression through NOD-like receptors containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome assembly. Furthermore, administration of agmatine (AGM), a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, reverses stress-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in rats. We examined the effects of chronically-administered nitric oxide (NO) pathway modulating drugs on NLRP1/3-mediated neuroinflammatory responses and depressive-like behaviors in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) depression model of rats...
December 15, 2019: Brain Research
Niyamat Chimthanawala, Shruti Patil, Rishabh Agrawal, Nandkishor R Kotagale, Milind J Umekar, Brijesh G Taksande
Although ethanol withdrawal depression is one of the prominent reasons for its reinstatement and dependence, its neurochemical basis is not clearly understood. Present study investigated the role of agmatinergic system in ethanol withdrawal-induced depression using forced swim test (FST) in rats. Chronic exposure of animals to ethanol for 21 days and its abrupt withdrawal produced depression like behavior as evidenced by increased immobility time in FST, compared to the pair-fed control animals. The ethanol withdrawal-induced depression was significantly attenuated by agmatine (20-40 μg/rat, i...
September 11, 2019: Alcohol
Bernard J Crespi
The first treatments showing effectiveness for some psychiatric disorders, such as lithium for bipolar disorder and chlorpromazine for schizophrenia, were discovered by accident. Currently, psychiatric drug design is seen as a scientific enterprise, limited though it remains by the complexity of brain development and function. Relatively few novel and effective drugs have, however, been developed for many years. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how evolutionary biology can provide a useful framework for psychiatric drug development...
2019: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Hira Rafi, Fahad Ahmad, Javaria Anis, Ruba Khan, Hamna Rafiq, Muhammad Farhan
AIM: Endogenous agmatine has a significant role in learning and memory process as a neurotransmitter. Various studies described the physiological role of endogenous agmatine in learning and memory of multiple cognitive tasks suggesting elevated levels of agmatine during learning process in rat brain. Dietary intake of choline shown correlation with cognitive functions in human subjects and treatment with choline supplements validated the ability to diminish learning and cognitive impairment dementias...
October 16, 2019: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Arisoy Ozden, Halaris Angelos, Aricioglu Feyza, Wild Elizabeth, Piletz John
L-Arginine pathway metabolites appear to play differential roles in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Studies have revealed an antidepressant and anxiolytic effect of agmatine and putrescine. Possible mechanisms of these effects include inhibition of nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. The present study sought to determine whether MDD is associated with altered levels of arginine metabolites and whether these metabolites are associated with depression, anxiety and stress severity...
January 2020: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Xiao-Bo Yang, Jin-Hai Wang, Hui-Qin An, Ding-Long Liu, Shu-Ming Guan, Dao-Ning Cui, Chang Shu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of Warming-promotion needling underlying improvement of vascular dementia (VD) by observing its effect on learning-memory ability and expression of hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor(nAChR)subunit proteins and mRNAs in rats with VD. METHODS: Sixty male SD rats were randomized into normal control, model, medication, warming-promotion needling(WPN), uniform reinforcing-reducing needling (URRN), and needle-twirling groups ( n =10 in each group)...
October 25, 2019: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Shu-Wei Yang, Tie-Ming Ma, Xing Tao, Si-Teng Pan, Xian-de Ma
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of deep electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation at "Huantiao"(GB30) on hindlimb motor function and expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK ) and p53 proteins in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in rats with chronic constrictive injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve. METHODS: Forty-eight SD rats (half male and half female) were randomly divided into control, model, shallow EA (SEA) stimulation and deep EA (DEA) stimulation groups ( n =12 in each group)...
October 25, 2019: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Jonna Berry, Ashley Gilbert, Justin Grodnitzky
Kava is an Oceanic plant in which the root is consumed as a beverage and is becoming increasingly popular. The effects of kava consumption may include sedation, euphoria, and impairment of motor coordination. This article demonstrates kava impairment through four cases of self-reported kava use supported with Drug Recognition Expert (DRE) evaluations of each subject. Subject's urines screened negative for common drugs of abuse by immunoassay analysis. Urine from cases 3 and 4 were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which yielded the presence of kavalactones...
November 2019: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Shimaalsadat Sajadi, Majid Kazemi, Babak Bakhtar, Hamid Ostadebrahimi
BACKGROUND: The neonates of addicted women are at risk for neonatal abstinence syndrome. This study aimed to compare the effects of auricular seed acupressure and foot reflexology on neonatal abstinence syndrome among the neonates of addicted women. METHODS: Thirty one neonates of addicted women were purposively recruited and randomly allocated through coin flipping to receive either foot reflexology then seed acupressure or seed acupressure then foot reflexology...
August 2019: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Constanza Garcia-Keller, Cora Smiley, Cara Monforton, Samantha Melton, Peter W Kalivas, Justin Gass
Converging epidemiological studies show that a life-threatening event increases the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which carries 30% to 50% comorbidity with substance use disorders (SUDs). Such comorbidity results in greater drug use and poorer treatment outcomes. There is overlap between the enduring synaptic neuroadaptations produced in nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) by acute restraint stress and cocaine self-administration. Because of these coincident neuroadaptations, we hypothesized that an odor paired with acute restraint stress would reinstate drug seeking and chose two mechanistically distinct drugs of abuse to test this hypothesis: alcohol and cocaine...
September 2020: Addiction Biology
Tomáš Pluskal, Michael P Torrens-Spence, Timothy R Fallon, Andrea De Abreu, Cindy H Shi, Jing-Ke Weng
Kava (Piper methysticum) is an ethnomedicinal shrub native to the Polynesian islands with well-established anxiolytic and analgesic properties. Its main psychoactive principles, kavalactones, form a unique class of polyketides that interact with the human central nervous system through mechanisms distinct from those of conventional psychiatric drugs. However, an unknown biosynthetic machinery and difficulty in chemical synthesis hinder the therapeutic use of kavalactones. In addition, kava also produces flavokavains, which are chalconoids with anticancer properties structurally related to kavalactones...
August 2019: Nature Plants
David A Wiss
The opioid crisis has reached epidemic proportions in the United States with rising overdose death rates. Identifying the underlying factors that contribute to addiction vulnerability may lead to more effective prevention strategies. Supply side environmental factors are a major contributing component. Psychosocial factors such as stress, trauma, and adverse childhood experiences have been linked to emotional pain leading to self-medication. Genetic and epigenetic factors associated with brain reward pathways and impulsivity are known predictors of addiction vulnerability...
2019: Frontiers in Public Health
Hussin A Rothan, Ammar Yasir Abdulrahman, Ahmad Suhail Khazali, Nurshamimi Nor Rashid, Teoh Teow Chong, Rohana Yusof
Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are flaviviruses transmitted to humans by their common vector, Aedes mosquitoes. DENV infection represents one of the most widely spread mosquito-borne diseases whereas ZIKV infection occasionally re-emerged in the past causing outbreaks. Although there have been considerable advances in understanding the pathophysiology of these viruses, no effective vaccines or antiviral drugs are currently available. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide (β-alanyl-l-histidine), against DENV serotype 2 (DENV2) and ZIKV infection in human liver cells (Huh7)...
August 2019: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Almudena Bermejo, Aida Collado, Isabel Barrachina, Patrice Marqués, Noureddine El Aouad, Xavier Franck, Francisco Garibotto, Catherine Dacquet, Daniel H Caignard, Fernando D Suvire, Ricardo D Enriz, Laura Piqueras, Bruno Figadère, María-Jesús Sanz, Nuria Cabedo, Diego Cortes
Dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α/γ (PPARα/γ) agonists regulate both lipid and glucose homeostasis under different metabolic conditions and can exert anti-inflammatory activity. We investigated the potential dual PPARα/γ agonism of prenylated benzopyrans polycerasoidol ( 1 ) and polycerasoidin ( 2 ) and their derivatives for novel drug development. Nine semisynthetic derivatives were prepared from the natural polycerasoidol ( 1 ) and polycerasoidin ( 2 ), which were evaluated for PPARα, -γ, -δ and retinoid X receptor-α activity in transactivation assays...
July 26, 2019: Journal of Natural Products
Ji-Yeong Bae, Zulfiqar Ali, Yan-Hong Wang, Amar G Chittiboyina, Ahmed A Zaki, Alvaro M Viljoen, Ikhlas A Khan
The rhizomes of Bulbine natalensis furnished six previously unreported anthraquinone derivatives ( 1 - 6 ), together with eight known specialized metabolites. Their structures were determined by interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS data. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 - 6 were determined by specific rotation and circular dichroism experiments. The isolated compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activities, and compound 1 was found to be a moderate inhibitor (IC50 0.02 μM) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
July 9, 2019: Journal of Natural Products
Debing Pu, Xiaoning Li, Jing Lin, Ruihan Zhang, Ting Luo, Yuan Wang, Junbo Gao, Muhammad Aurang Zeb, Xingjie Zhang, Xiaoli Li, Ruirui Wang, Weilie Xiao
Fungal drug resistance is a major health threat, and reports of clinical resistance worldwide are becoming increasingly common. In a research program to discover new molecules to help overcome this problem, 14 new lanostane-type triterpenoids, gibbosicolids A-G ( 2 - 8 ) and gibbosic acids I-O ( 9 - 15 ), were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma gibbosum , along with seven known triterpenoid derivatives. These compounds featured high levels of oxidation, epimerization, and γ-lactonization. Structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses and HRMS data...
July 16, 2019: Journal of Natural Products
Thomas Larrieu, Sophie Layé
The central nervous system (CNS) has the highest concentration of lipids in the organism after adipose tissue. Among these lipids, the brain is particularly enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) represented by the omega-6 (ω6) and omega-3 (ω3) series. These PUFAs include arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), respectively. PUFAs have received substantial attention as being relevant to many brain diseases, including anxiety and depression. This review addresses an important question in the area of nutritional neuroscience regarding the importance of ω3 PUFAs in the prevention and/or treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases, mainly depression and anxiety...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yaqun Liang, George Binh Lenon, Angela Wei Hong Yang
BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an IgE-mediated inflammatory disease. Current conventional therapies for AR are unsatisfactory. Acupuncture has been recommended as an optional treatment for AR patients who are interested in non-pharmacotherapy in the new clinical practice guidelines for AR. Acupressure is a sub-type of acupuncture which is non-invasive with a low risk and can be self-administered. However, the current limited evidence is compromised by the high risk of bias and heterogeneity of methodology...
June 25, 2019: Trials
Ahmad Gholamhossenian, Beydolah Shahouzehi, Mostafa Shokoohi, Hamid Najafipour
Background: Opium addiction is a global problem which has implicated many societies. Opium addiction and drug abuse is related to harmful consequences which affect life style, biochemical factors, and vitamins values, and also is considered as a risk for heart diseases. Folate and B12 levels are related to homocysteine and studies about their levels in opium addicts are controversial; therefore, we designed this study to evaluate B12 and folate values in opium addicts. Methods: From the Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Study (KERCADRS) which is a population-based study, we randomly selected 340 men and entered them into two groups: case (n = 170) and control group (n = 170)...
July 2018: Addiction & Health
2019-06-16 17:35:59
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