Michael J Li, Steven J Shoptaw
It is estimated that a majority of people who use psychostimulants, particularly methamphetamine (MA) and cocaine, experience withdrawal upon abstinence from sustained use. This review of clinical research reports the evidence regarding biomedical and behavioral treatments for psychostimulant withdrawal symptoms. It provides a framework for clinicians and scientists to increase impact on attenuating MA and cocaine withdrawal during initial and sustained abstinence. Articles reviewed included reports of controlled clinical trials (randomized or non-randomized) reporting at least one withdrawal symptom among the outcomes or specifically studying patients in withdrawal...
November 19, 2022: Addiction
Pavel A Markin, Natalia E Moskaleva, Svetlana A Lebedeva, Sergey V Kozin, Ekaterina M Grigorevskikh, Larisa G Kolik, Tatyana A Gudasheva, Svetlana A Appolonova
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family with diverse psychopharmacological effects including antidepressant and anxiolytic actions. However, the clinical use of BDNF is limited due to its poor pharmacokinetic properties. The development of low-molecular-weight BDNF mimetics passing through the blood-brain barrier is an emerging strategy for improved managing psychiatric diseases. The present study characterizes a novel dipeptide mimetic of the 2nd BDNF loop named GTS-201, which exhibits psychotropic properties in experimental animal models of anxiety and alcohol dependence...
October 28, 2022: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Hirak Trivedi, Tara A Avrit, Leah Chan, De Mauria Burchette, Rajni Rathore
Chronic pain is a debilitating condition that affects many individuals throughout their daily lives. While it is common to treat chronic pain with pharmaceutical treatments, an approach that has also shown great benefits is the use of integrative medicine, such as massage therapy, osteopathic and spinal manipulation, acupuncture, and yoga. The keywords "integrative medicine," "pain," "chronic pain," and "pain management" with the use of the Boolean operators "AND," "OR," and "NOT" were used to identify relevant studies discussing the effectiveness of alternative medicine in the treatment of chronic pain...
October 2022: Curēus
Angeliki M Angelidi, Matthew J Belanger, Alexander Kokkinos, Chrysi C Koliaki, Christos S Mantzoros
Recent insights into the pathophysiologic underlying mechanisms of obesity have led to the discovery of several promising drug targets and novel therapeutic strategies to address the global obesity epidemic and its comorbidities. Current pharmacologic options for obesity management are largely limited in number and of modest efficacy/safety profile. Therefore, the need for safe and more efficacious new agents is urgent. Drugs that are currently under investigation modulate targets across a broad range of systems and tissues, including the central nervous system, gastrointestinal hormones, adipose tissue, kidney, liver, and skeletal muscle...
May 12, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
Catherine M Cahill, Wendy Walwyn, Anna M W Taylor, Amynah A A Pradhan, Christopher J Evans
Mechanisms of opioid tolerance have focused on adaptive modifications within cells containing opioid receptors, defined here as cellular allostasis, emphasizing regulation of the opioid receptor signalosome. We review additional regulatory and opponent processes involved in behavioral tolerance, and include mechanistic differences both between agonists (agonist bias), and between μ- and δ-opioid receptors. In a process we will refer to as pass-forward allostasis, cells modified directly by opioid drugs impute allostatic changes to downstream circuitry...
November 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
K N Roy Chengappa, Jaspreet S Brar, Jessica M Gannon, Patricia J Schlicht
OBJECTIVE: To determine if adjunctive treatment with a standardized extract of Withania somnifera (WSE), with known anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties, improves psychopathology and stress in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (DSM-IV-TR). METHODS: Patients experiencing an exacerbation of symptoms were assigned to WSE (1,000 mg/d) or placebo for 12 weeks, added to their antipsychotic medication, in a random-assignment, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted from April 2013 to July 2016...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Pallav Sengupta, Ashok Agarwal, Maria Pogrebetskaya, Shubhadeep Roychoudhury, Damayanthi Durairajanayagam, Ralf Henkel
To manage male infertility caused by hormonal imbalance, infections and other predicaments, multifarious treatment strategies are emerging worldwide. Contemporary treatments, such as assisted reproductive techniques, are costly with low success rates of only 10-30%; however, herbal remedies are gaining more attention as an alternative or supplementary therapeutic modality for male infertility. The beneficial effects induced by oral intake of the roots of a small evergreen shrub, Withania sominifera (Ashwagandha) on semen quality of infertile men have previously been studied...
March 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Sultan Zahiruddin, Parakh Basist, Abida Parveen, Rabea Parveen, Washim Khan, Gaurav, Sayeed Ahmad
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Withania somnifera (Family: Solanaceae), commonly known as Ashwagandha or Indian ginseng is distributed widely in India, Nepal, China and Yemen. The roots of plant consist of active phytoconstituents mainly withanolides, alkaloids and sitoindosides and are conventionally used for the treatment of multiple brain disorders. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to critically assess and summarize the current state and implication of Ashwagandha in brain disorders...
July 15, 2020: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Clara Lorber, Solene Leleux, Ralf Stanewsky, Angelique Lamaze
Proper timing of rhythmic locomotor behavior is the consequence of integrating environmental conditions and internal time dictated by the circadian clock. Rhythmic environmental input like daily light and temperature changes (called Zeitgeber) reset the molecular clock and entrain it to the environmental time zone the organism lives in. Furthermore, depending on the absolute temperature or light intensity, flies exhibit their main locomotor activity at different times of day, i.e., environmental input not only entrains the circadian clock but also determines the phase of a certain behavior...
November 11, 2022: PLoS Genetics
Youna Vandaele, Eric Augier, Caroline Vouillac-Mendoza, Serge H Ahmed
When facing a choice, most animals quit drugs in favour of a variety of nondrug alternatives. We recently found, rather unexpectedly, that choice of the nondrug alternative is in fact inflexible and habitual. One possible contributing factor to habitual choice is the intermittency and uncontrollability of choice trials in previous studies. Here, we asked whether and to what extent volitional control over the occurrence of choice trials could change animals' preference by preventing habitual choice. To do so, rats were trained to nosepoke in a hole to trigger the presentation of two operant levers: one associated with cocaine, the other with saccharin...
November 2022: Addiction Biology
Lei Zhang, Lidia Alejo Esquembre, Shu-Ning Xia, Filipp Oesterhelt, Chambers C Hughes, Heike Brötz-Oesterhelt, Robin Teufel
Actinobacteria have traditionally been an important source of bioactive natural products, although many genera remain poorly explored. Here, we report a group of distinctive pyrrole-containing natural products, named synnepyrroles, from Nocardiopsis synnemataformans . Detailed structural characterization by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy combined with isotope-labeling experiments revealed their molecular structures and biosynthetic precursors acetate, propionate, aspartate, and (for branched analogues) valine...
October 21, 2022: ACS Chemical Biology
Paolo Poli, Luana Peruzzi, Pierdomenico Maurizi, Antonella Mencucci, Antonella Scocca, Simona Carnevale, Ottavia Spiga, Annalisa Santucci
BACKGROUND: The increase in the medical use of cannabis has revealed a number of beneficial effects, a variety of adverse side effects and great inter-individual variability. Association studies connecting consumption, addiction and side effects related to recreational cannabis use have led to the identification of several polymorphic genes that may play a role in the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of cannabis. METHOD: In total, 600 patients treated with cannabis were genotyped for several candidate polymorphic genes (single-nucleotide polymorphism; SNP), encoding receptors CNR1 and TRPV1; for the ABCB1 transporter; for biotransformation, bioactivation and biosynthesis; and CYP3A4, COMT and UGT2B7 conjugation...
October 11, 2022: Genes
Kishan V Patel, Sidharth Sahni, Lanvin F Taylor
Buprenorphine is a partial mu opioid agonist that has been increasingly utilized to treat patients with chronic pain and opioid use disorder (OUD). The drug has proven to provide significant chronic pain relief at low doses ranging from 75 to 1800 mcg. The conventional buprenorphine transitional process delays its introduction until patients begin withdrawal. However, this process can pose a barrier to both patients and providers due to some patients' inability to tolerate traditional prerequisite withdrawal...
October 25, 2022: Journal of osteopathic medicine
Laurent F Martin, Kevin Cheng, Stephanie M Washington, Millie Denton, Vasudha Goel, Maithili Khandekar, Tally M Largent-Milnes, Amol Patwardhan, Mohab M Ibrahim
Light therapy improves multiple conditions such as seasonal affective disorders, circadian rhythm dysregulations, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, little is known about its potential benefits in pain management. While current pharmacologic methods are effective in many cases, the associated side effects can limit their use. Non-pharmacological methods would minimize drug dependence, facilitating a reduction of the opioid burden. Green light therapy has been shown to be effective in reducing chronic pain in humans and rodents...
October 22, 2022: Journal of Pain
Arne Astrup, Carlos A Monteiro
The participants in this debate agree that food processing vitally affects human health, and that the extent of food processing significantly affects diet quality and health outcomes. They disagree on the significance of ultra-processing, as defined within the Nova food classification system. The YES position holds that the concept is well-founded, clear, and supported by a wealth of investigations, as demonstrated by systematic association between ultra-processed food (UPF) intake and various diseases and disorders, and the persistence of these associations with control for critical nutrients...
October 17, 2022: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Harry Jarrett, Helene McNulty, Catherine F Hughes, Kristina Pentieva, J J Strain, Adrian McCann, Liadhan McAnena, Conal Cunningham, Anne M Molloy, Albert Flynn, Sinead M Hopkins, Geraldine Horigan, Ciara O'Connor, Janette Walton, Breige A McNulty, Michael J Gibney, Yvonne Lamers, Mary Ward
BACKGROUND: The generation of the active form of vitamin B6, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), in tissues is dependent upon riboflavin as flavin mononucleotide, but whether this interaction is important for maintaining B6 status is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate vitamin B6 and riboflavin status, their metabolic interaction and relationship with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype in adulthood. DESIGN: Data from 5612 adults aged 18-102y were drawn from the Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS; population-based sample) and the Trinity-Ulster-Department of Agriculture (TUDA) and Genovit cohorts (volunteer samples)...
October 20, 2022: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Adams K K, Miech E J, Sobieraj D M
BACKGROUND: Novel buprenorphine dosing strategies have emerged with an aim to transition patients from opioid agonists to buprenorphine without prerequisite opioid withdrawal. We applied a configurational approach to a subset of data from our earlier systematic review to answer the following question: when patients received a buprenorphine initiation strategy aimed to eliminate prerequisite withdrawal, what factors consistently distinguished patients that experienced withdrawal during the initiation process from patients that did not? METHODS: From the 24 cases identified by our systematic review, we included cases that were treated using buprenorphine microdosing strategies (oral or transdermal), cases with opioid use disorder, and cases that fully transitioned to buprenorphine without continuing the full opioid agonist...
October 4, 2022: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Eduardo López-Medina, Pío López, Isabel C Hurtado, Diana M Dávalos, Oscar Ramirez, Ernesto Martínez, Jesus A Díazgranados, José M Oñate, Hector Chavarriaga, Sócrates Herrera, Beatriz Parra, Gerardo Libreros, Roberto Jaramillo, Ana C Avendaño, Dilian F Toro, Miyerlandi Torres, Maria C Lesmes, Carlos A Rios, Isabella Caicedo
Importance: Ivermectin is widely prescribed as a potential treatment for COVID-19 despite uncertainty about its clinical benefit. Objective: To determine whether ivermectin is an efficacious treatment for mild COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: Double-blind, randomized trial conducted at a single site in Cali, Colombia. Potential study participants were identified by simple random sampling from the state's health department electronic database of patients with symptomatic, laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during the study period...
April 13, 2021: JAMA
Juliana Cepelowicz Rajter, Michael S Sherman, Naaz Fatteh, Fabio Vogel, Jamie Sacks, Jean-Jacques Rajter
BACKGROUND: Ivermectin was shown to inhibit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 replication in vitro, which has led to off-label use, but clinical efficacy has not been described previously. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does ivermectin benefit hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Charts of consecutive patients hospitalized at four Broward Health hospitals in Florida with confirmed COVID-19 between March 15 and May 11, 2020, treated with or without ivermectin were reviewed...
January 2021: Chest
Andrew Bryant, Theresa A Lawrie, Therese Dowswell, Edmund J Fordham, Scott Mitchell, Sarah R Hill, Tony C Tham
BACKGROUND: Repurposed medicines may have a role against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The antiparasitic ivermectin, with antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties, has now been tested in numerous clinical trials. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: We assessed the efficacy of ivermectin treatment in reducing mortality, in secondary outcomes, and in chemoprophylaxis, among people with, or at high risk of, COVID-19 infection. DATA SOURCES: We searched bibliographic databases up to April 25, 2021...
June 21, 2021: American Journal of Therapeutics
2022-10-20 22:57:35
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