Steven C Eastlack, Elyse M Cornett, Alan D Kaye
Kratom, or Mitragyna, is a tropical plant indigenous to Southeast Asia, with unique pharmacological properties. It is commonly consumed by preparing the leaves into decoction or tea, or by grinding them into a powder. Recent evidence has revealed that kratom has physiological effects similar to opioids, including pain relief and euphoria, as well as stimulant properties, which together raise potential concern for dependence and addiction. Moreover, growing evidence suggests that the prevalence of kratom use is increasing in many parts of the world, raising important considerations for healthcare providers...
June 2020: Pain and Therapy
Seulah Lee, Min-Ji Kim, Bum Soo Lee, Rhim Ryoo, Hye Kyung Kim, Ki Hyun Kim
Calvatia nipponica , a puffball mushroom (Agaricaceae), is thought to be an aphrodisiac, as this mushroom is traditionally known to improve sexual function in males. As part of the systematic study to determine the bioactive secondary metabolites from C. nipponica responsible for aphrodisiac effects, chemical analysis of methanol (MeOH) extracts of the fruiting bodies of C. nipponica resulted in the isolation of two major compounds: N , N -dimethyl-anthranilic acid ( 1 ) and (7 Z ,10 Z )-7,10-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester ( 2 )...
2020: Mycobiology
Amita Rai, Meghna Gill, Manas Kinra, Liston Augustine Dsouza, Suhani Sumalatha, Swapnil Raj, Raghavendra Shetty, Krishnadas Nandakumar, Mallikarjuna Rao Chamallamudi, Nitesh Kumar
Considering dopamine-enhancing effect of (+)-catechin, the present study was designed to evaluate dopamine-2 (D2) receptor agonistic and phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) enzyme inhibitory effects in in silico and effect on male sexual function of Sprague Dawley rats in vivo. (+)-Catechin and standard (sildenafil and bromocriptine) were docked using Autodock Vina 1.1.2 and visualised by UCSF Chimera 1.14. Significant interactions in terms of binding energies were observed for catechin with both proteins. In in vivo study, the rats were dosed orally for 54 days with (+)-catechin hydrate (50 mg/kg), sildenafil citrate (standard, 4 mg/kg) and carboxymethylcellulose (vehicle, 0...
July 2, 2020: Andrologia
Mauro Pettorruso, Luisa De Risio, Giovanni Martinotti, Marco Di Nicola, Filippo Ruggeri, Gianluigi Conte, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Luigi Janiri
Pathological gambling or gambling disorder has been defined by the DSM-5 as a behavioral addiction. To date, its pathophysiology is not completely understood and there is no FDA-approved treatment for gambling disorders. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system and it has been recently involved in the pathophysiology of addictive behaviors. In this paper, we review the current literature on a class of drugs that act as modulating glutamate system in PG. A total of 19 studies have been included, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria...
2014: BioMed Research International
Erin N Bobeck, QiLiang Chen, Michael M Morgan, Susan L Ingram
Opioid inhibition of presynaptic GABA release in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) activates the descending antinociception pathway. Tolerance to repeated opioid administration is associated with upregulation of adenylyl cyclase activity. The objective of these studies was to test the hypothesis that adenylyl cyclase contributes to opioid tolerance by modulating GABA neurotransmission. Repeated microinjections of morphine or the adenylyl cyclase activator NKH477 into the vlPAG decreased morphine antinociception as would be expected with the development of tolerance...
August 2014: Neuropsychopharmacology
Pulok K Mukherjee, Subhadip Banerjee, Sayan Biswas, Bhaskar Das, Amit Kar, C K Katiyar
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, commonly known as Ashwagandha, is an important medicinal plant that has been used in Ayurvedic and indigenous medicine for more than 3000 years. According to Charaka Samhita, Susruta Samhita and other ancient texts, Ashwagandha is known as Balya (increases strength), Brusya (sexual performance enhancer), vajikari (spermatogenic), Kamarupini (libido-enhancing), Pustida (nourishing). AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review article documented and critically assessed W...
January 10, 2021: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Rana El Rawas, Inês M Amaral, Alex Hofer
Drug addiction is a multifactorial disorder resulting from the complex interaction between biological, environmental and drug-induced effects. Generally, stress is a well-known risk factor for the development of drug addiction and relapse. While most of the research focuses on risk factors that increase the vulnerability to drugs of abuse, recent studies are focusing on the areas of strength/positive coping approaches that can increase resistance to drugs of abuse. In this review, we concentrate on resilience, seen as a dynamic process, which can allow individuals to positively adapt within the context of a specific risk for psychiatric illness...
August 2020: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Hui Shen, Meijuan Chen, Donghong Cui
In recent years, research on meditation as an important alternative therapy has developed rapidly and been widely applied in clinical medicine. Mechanism studies of meditation have also developed progressively, showing that meditation has great impact on brain structure and function, and epigenetic and telomere regulation. In line with this, the application of meditation has gradually been expanded to mental illness, most often applied for major depressive disorders and substance-related and addictive disorders...
2020: General Psychiatry
Lindsay E Johnson, Lilian Balyan, Amy Magdalany, Fizza Saeed, Robert Salinas, Starla Wallace, Charles A Veltri, Marc T Swogger, Zach Walsh, Oliver Grundmann
Mitragyna speciosa , otherwise known as kratom, is a plant in the coffee family (Rubiaceae) native to Southeast Asia and Thailand whose leaves have been shown to cause opioid-like and stimulant responses upon ingestion. The major pharmacologically active compounds present in kratom, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (7-HMG), are both indole alkaloids and are responsible for its opioid-like activity. While kratom is most commonly known for its affinity for mu-opioid receptors, research has shown one of its active components has effects on the same receptors to which some antipsychotics bind, such as D2 dopamine, serotonin (5-HT2C and 5-HT7 ), and alpha-2 adrenergic receptors displaying possible indications of kratom to be used as both antipsychotics and antidepressants...
June 2020: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Jun-Ichiro Oka
This review focuses on the anti-dementia and antidepressant-like effects of peptides including glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2, neuromedin U (NmU), and oxytocin, and the intranasal delivery of these peptides to the brain. Intracerebroventricularly administered GLP-1, NmU, and oxytocin improved impairment of learning and memory in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide or β-amyloid protein. GLP-1 also improved impairment of learning and memory in juvenile diabetes model rats. On the other hand, GLP-2 exhibited antidepressant-like effects in mice during the forced-swim test, which were associated with 5-HT1A , α2 , β1 , and D2 receptors...
2019: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Pierre Watcho, Fred Lih, Patrick Brice Defo Deeh, Modeste Wankeu-Nya, Esther Ngadjui, Georges Romeo Fozing Bonsou, Albert Kamanyi, Pierre Kamtchouing
Background: Raphia vinifera (Arecaceae) is a medicinal plant commonly used as a sexual enhancer. Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of aqueous extract (AE) and methanolic extract (ME) of R. vinifera in sexually experienced male rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into six groups (5 rats per group) and administered for 14 days with distilled water (10 ml/kg), sildenafil citrate (1...
June 2019: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
Priscila Diaz, António Carneiro, Vera Montes, Sara Alves
Cantharidin is a toxin extracted from coleoptera beetles, commonly known as 'Spanish fly'. Traditionally it was used as an aphrodisiac, a vesicant or as an abortifacient. Intoxication by this substance has been widely reported, generally associated with gastrointestinal complications, such as digestive hemorrhage, and genitourinary disorders, such as hematuria and acute kidney injury. The authors describe the case of a 51-year old male patient who developed severe cantharidin poisoning after ingesting a preparation ('tea formulation') containing the substance...
April 1, 2020: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Aysen Cakir, Busra Ocalan, Cansu Koc, Guldal Gulec Suyen, Mehmet Cansev, Nevzat Kahveci
Cytidine 5-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) administration has been shown to improve learning and memory deficits in different models of brain disorders. In this study, effects of CDP-choline on the well known negative effects of Rapid Eye Movements (REM) sleep deprivation on learning and memory were investigated. Sleep deprivation was induced by placing adult male Wistar albino rats on 6.5 cm diameter platforms individually for 96 h according to flower pot method. Learning and memory performances were evaluated using Morris Water Maze (MWM) test during the same period of time...
January 1, 2020: Physiology & Behavior
Daqing Gan, Shuilong Wu, Bing Chen, Jingjing Zhang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public and socioeconomic problem throughout the world. The establishment of an effective and cost-effective TBI model for developing new therapeutic agents is challenging. Microglia are considered the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS) that normally do not enter the brain. As the primary mediators of the innate immune response in the CNS, microglia play a critical role in neuroinflammation and secondary injury after TBI. In this study, we established an in vivo TBI zebrafish model using Tg( coro1a:EGFP ) line where the green fluorescent protein-labeled microglia were present...
April 2020: Zebrafish
Chao Hsing Yeh, Keenan Caswell, Sonaali Pandiri, Haris Sair, Nada Lukkahatai, Claudia M Campbell, Vered Stearns, Barbara Van de Castle, Nancy Perrin, Thomas J Smith, Leorey N Saligan
Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic brain activity following auricular point acupressure (APA) in chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIN). Methods: Participants received 4 weeks of APA in an open-pilot trial with repeated observation. Along with the clinical self-reported CIN outcomes, objective outcomes were measured over the course of the treatment by physiological changes in pain sensory thresholds from quantitative sensory testing (QST) and repeated functional magnetic resonance imaging scans...
2020: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
Yedy Israel, María Elena Quintanilla, Fernando Ezquer, Paola Morales, Daniela Santapau, Pablo Berríos-Cárcamo, Marcelo Ezquer, Belen Olivares, Mario Herrera-Marschitz
Chronic alcohol intake leads to neuroinflammation and cell injury, proposed to result in alterations that perpetuate alcohol intake and cued relapse. Studies show that brain oxidative stress is consistently associated with alcohol-induced neuroinflammation, and literature implies that oxidative stress and neuroinflammation perpetuate each other. In line with a self-perpetuating mechanism, it is hypothesized that inhibition of either oxidative stress or neuroinflammation could reduce chronic alcohol intake and relapse...
January 2021: Addiction Biology
Yoko Hirata, Yuki Ito, Madoka Takashima, Kazuya Yagyu, Kentaro Oh-Hashi, Hiromi Suzuki, Kenji Ono, Kyoji Furuta, Makoto Sawada
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. The oxindole compound GIF-2165X-G1 is a hybrid molecule composed of the oxindole skeleton of the neuroprotective compound GIF-0726-r and the polyphenolic skeleton of the antioxidant curcumin. We previously reported that novel oxindole derivatives such as GIF-0726-r and GIF-2165X-G1 prevent endogenous oxidative stress-induced cell death in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. In this study, we present a detailed investigation of the effect of GIF-2165X-G1 on endogenous oxidative stress in HT22 cells in comparison with GIF-0726-r and curcumin...
January 2, 2020: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Ting Lei, Zhenxin Hu, Ruolin Ding, Jianfang Chen, Shiqi Li, Fuhui Zhang, Xuemei Pu, Nanrong Zhao
Metabotropic glutamate receptors of class C GPCRs exist as constitutive dimers, which play important roles in activating excitatory synapses of the central nervous system. However, the activation mechanism induced by agonists has not been clarified in experiments. To address the problem, we used microsecond all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation couple with protein structure network (PSN) to explore the glutamate-induced activation for the mGluR1 homodimer. The results indicate that glutamate binding stabilizes not only the closure of Venus flytrap domains but also the polar interaction of LB2-LB2, in turn keeping the extracelluar domain in the active state...
January 15, 2020: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Alain Couvineau, Thierry Voisin, Pascal Nicole, Valérie Gratio, Catalina Abad, Yossan-Var Tan
Orexins [orexin-A (OXA) and orexin-B (OXB)] are two isoforms of neuropeptides produced by the hypothalamus. The main biological actions of orexins, focused on the central nervous system, are to control the sleep/wake process, appetite and feeding, energy homeostasis, drug addiction, and cognitive processes. These effects are mediated by two G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) subtypes named OX1R and OX2R. In accordance with the synergic and dynamic relationship between the nervous and immune systems, orexins also have neuroprotective and immuno-regulatory (i...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
David H Bergin, Yu Jing, Gail Williams, Bruce G Mockett, Hu Zhang, Wickliffe C Abraham, Ping Liu
Agmatine (decarboxylated arginine) exerts numerous central nervous system (CNS) dependent pharmacological effects and may potentially modulate altered neurochemistry seen in neurological disorders. In preclinical studies, injection has been the predominant route of systemic administration. However, a significant translational step would be the use of oral agmatine treatment at therapeutic doses and better understanding of L-arginine metabolic profiles in the CNS post-treatment. The present study systematically investigated the tolerability, safety and brain-plasma neurochemistry following daily oral agmatine sulfate treatment (via gavage) to wild-type (WT) mice up to 900 mg/kg for one week (Experiment 1) or WT and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic (Tg) mice at 300 mg/kg for fifteen weeks (Experiment 2)...
September 3, 2019: Scientific Reports
2019-10-31 03:23:37
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