Pierre Watcho, Fred Lih, Patrick Brice Defo Deeh, Modeste Wankeu-Nya, Esther Ngadjui, Georges Romeo Fozing Bonsou, Albert Kamanyi, Pierre Kamtchouing
Background: Raphia vinifera (Arecaceae) is a medicinal plant commonly used as a sexual enhancer. Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of aqueous extract (AE) and methanolic extract (ME) of R. vinifera in sexually experienced male rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into six groups (5 rats per group) and administered for 14 days with distilled water (10 ml/kg), sildenafil citrate (1...
June 2019: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
Priscila Diaz, António Carneiro, Vera Montes, Sara Alves
Cantharidin is a toxin extracted from coleoptera beetles, commonly known as 'Spanish fly'. Traditionally it was used as an aphrodisiac, a vesicant or as an abortifacient. Intoxication by this substance has been widely reported, generally associated with gastrointestinal complications, such as digestive hemorrhage, and genitourinary disorders, such as hematuria and acute kidney injury. The authors describe the case of a 51-year old male patient who developed severe cantharidin poisoning after ingesting a preparation ('tea formulation') containing the substance...
April 1, 2020: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Aysen Cakir, Busra Ocalan, Cansu Koc, Guldal Gulec Suyen, Mehmet Cansev, Nevzat Kahveci
Cytidine 5-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) administration has been shown to improve learning and memory deficits in different models of brain disorders. In this study, effects of CDP-choline on the well known negative effects of Rapid Eye Movements (REM) sleep deprivation on learning and memory were investigated. Sleep deprivation was induced by placing adult male Wistar albino rats on 6.5 cm diameter platforms individually for 96 h according to flower pot method. Learning and memory performances were evaluated using Morris Water Maze (MWM) test during the same period of time...
January 1, 2020: Physiology & Behavior
Daqing Gan, Shuilong Wu, Bing Chen, Jingjing Zhang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public and socioeconomic problem throughout the world. The establishment of an effective and cost-effective TBI model for developing new therapeutic agents is challenging. Microglia are considered the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS) that normally do not enter the brain. As the primary mediators of the innate immune response in the CNS, microglia play a critical role in neuroinflammation and secondary injury after TBI. In this study, we established an in vivo TBI zebrafish model using Tg( coro1a:EGFP ) line where the green fluorescent protein-labeled microglia were present...
April 2020: Zebrafish
Chao Hsing Yeh, Keenan Caswell, Sonaali Pandiri, Haris Sair, Nada Lukkahatai, Claudia M Campbell, Vered Stearns, Barbara Van de Castle, Nancy Perrin, Thomas J Smith, Leorey N Saligan
Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic brain activity following auricular point acupressure (APA) in chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIN). Methods: Participants received 4 weeks of APA in an open-pilot trial with repeated observation. Along with the clinical self-reported CIN outcomes, objective outcomes were measured over the course of the treatment by physiological changes in pain sensory thresholds from quantitative sensory testing (QST) and repeated functional magnetic resonance imaging scans...
2020: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
Yedy Israel, María Elena Quintanilla, Fernando Ezquer, Paola Morales, Daniela Santapau, Pablo Berríos-Cárcamo, Marcelo Ezquer, Belen Olivares, Mario Herrera-Marschitz
Chronic alcohol intake leads to neuroinflammation and cell injury, proposed to result in alterations that perpetuate alcohol intake and cued relapse. Studies show that brain oxidative stress is consistently associated with alcohol-induced neuroinflammation, and literature implies that oxidative stress and neuroinflammation perpetuate each other. In line with a self-perpetuating mechanism, it is hypothesized that inhibition of either oxidative stress or neuroinflammation could reduce chronic alcohol intake and relapse...
November 15, 2019: Addiction Biology
Yoko Hirata, Yuki Ito, Madoka Takashima, Kazuya Yagyu, Kentaro Oh-Hashi, Hiromi Suzuki, Kenji Ono, Kyoji Furuta, Makoto Sawada
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. The oxindole compound GIF-2165X-G1 is a hybrid molecule composed of the oxindole skeleton of the neuroprotective compound GIF-0726-r and the polyphenolic skeleton of the antioxidant curcumin. We previously reported that novel oxindole derivatives such as GIF-0726-r and GIF-2165X-G1 prevent endogenous oxidative stress-induced cell death in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. In this study, we present a detailed investigation of the effect of GIF-2165X-G1 on endogenous oxidative stress in HT22 cells in comparison with GIF-0726-r and curcumin...
January 2, 2020: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Ting Lei, Zhenxin Hu, Ruolin Ding, Jianfang Chen, Shiqi Li, Fuhui Zhang, Xuemei Pu, Nanrong Zhao
Metabotropic glutamate receptors of class C GPCRs exist as constitutive dimers, which play important roles in activating excitatory synapses of the central nervous system. However, the activation mechanism induced by agonists has not been clarified in experiments. To address the problem, we used microsecond all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation couple with protein structure network (PSN) to explore the glutamate-induced activation for the mGluR1 homodimer. The results indicate that glutamate binding stabilizes not only the closure of Venus flytrap domains but also the polar interaction of LB2-LB2, in turn keeping the extracelluar domain in the active state...
January 15, 2020: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Alain Couvineau, Thierry Voisin, Pascal Nicole, Valérie Gratio, Catalina Abad, Yossan-Var Tan
Orexins [orexin-A (OXA) and orexin-B (OXB)] are two isoforms of neuropeptides produced by the hypothalamus. The main biological actions of orexins, focused on the central nervous system, are to control the sleep/wake process, appetite and feeding, energy homeostasis, drug addiction, and cognitive processes. These effects are mediated by two G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) subtypes named OX1R and OX2R. In accordance with the synergic and dynamic relationship between the nervous and immune systems, orexins also have neuroprotective and immuno-regulatory (i...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
David H Bergin, Yu Jing, Gail Williams, Bruce G Mockett, Hu Zhang, Wickliffe C Abraham, Ping Liu
Agmatine (decarboxylated arginine) exerts numerous central nervous system (CNS) dependent pharmacological effects and may potentially modulate altered neurochemistry seen in neurological disorders. In preclinical studies, injection has been the predominant route of systemic administration. However, a significant translational step would be the use of oral agmatine treatment at therapeutic doses and better understanding of L-arginine metabolic profiles in the CNS post-treatment. The present study systematically investigated the tolerability, safety and brain-plasma neurochemistry following daily oral agmatine sulfate treatment (via gavage) to wild-type (WT) mice up to 900 mg/kg for one week (Experiment 1) or WT and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic (Tg) mice at 300 mg/kg for fifteen weeks (Experiment 2)...
September 3, 2019: Scientific Reports
Brijesh G Taksande, Shreesha Nambiar, Shardha Patil, Milind J Umekar, Manish M Aglawe, Nandkishor R Kotagale
Alcohol is one of the most widely abused recreational drugs, largely linked with serious health and social concerns. However, the treatment options for alcohol-use disorders have limited efficacy and exhibit a range of adverse drug reactions. Large numbers of preclinical studies have projected a biogenic amine, agmatine as a promising potential treatment option for drug addiction, including alcoholism. In the present study, administration of agmatine (20-40 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in significant inhibition of ethanol self-administration in the right p-VTA in operant conditioning paradigm...
November 2019: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Ceren Sahin Ozkartal, Erdem Tuzun, Cem Ismail Kucukali, Canan Ulusoy, Murat Giris, Feyza Aricioglu
Innate immunity activation in the central nervous system (CNS) is known to contribute to the development of depression through NOD-like receptors containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome assembly. Furthermore, administration of agmatine (AGM), a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, reverses stress-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in rats. We examined the effects of chronically-administered nitric oxide (NO) pathway modulating drugs on NLRP1/3-mediated neuroinflammatory responses and depressive-like behaviors in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) depression model of rats...
December 15, 2019: Brain Research
Niyamat Chimthanawala, Shruti Patil, Rishabh Agrawal, Nandkishor R Kotagale, Milind J Umekar, Brijesh G Taksande
Although ethanol withdrawal depression is one of the prominent reasons for its reinstatement and dependence, its neurochemical basis is not clearly understood. Present study investigated the role of agmatinergic system in ethanol withdrawal-induced depression using forced swim test (FST) in rats. Chronic exposure of animals to ethanol for 21 days and its abrupt withdrawal produced depression like behavior as evidenced by increased immobility time in FST, compared to the pair-fed control animals. The ethanol withdrawal-induced depression was significantly attenuated by agmatine (20-40 μg/rat, i...
September 11, 2019: Alcohol
Bernard J Crespi
The first treatments showing effectiveness for some psychiatric disorders, such as lithium for bipolar disorder and chlorpromazine for schizophrenia, were discovered by accident. Currently, psychiatric drug design is seen as a scientific enterprise, limited though it remains by the complexity of brain development and function. Relatively few novel and effective drugs have, however, been developed for many years. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how evolutionary biology can provide a useful framework for psychiatric drug development...
2019: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Hira Rafi, Fahad Ahmad, Javaria Anis, Ruba Khan, Hamna Rafiq, Muhammad Farhan
AIM: Endogenous agmatine has a significant role in learning and memory process as a neurotransmitter. Various studies described the physiological role of endogenous agmatine in learning and memory of multiple cognitive tasks suggesting elevated levels of agmatine during learning process in rat brain. Dietary intake of choline shown correlation with cognitive functions in human subjects and treatment with choline supplements validated the ability to diminish learning and cognitive impairment dementias...
October 16, 2019: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Arisoy Ozden, Halaris Angelos, Aricioglu Feyza, Wild Elizabeth, Piletz John
L-Arginine pathway metabolites appear to play differential roles in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Studies have revealed an antidepressant and anxiolytic effect of agmatine and putrescine. Possible mechanisms of these effects include inhibition of nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. The present study sought to determine whether MDD is associated with altered levels of arginine metabolites and whether these metabolites are associated with depression, anxiety and stress severity...
January 2020: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Xiao-Bo Yang, Jin-Hai Wang, Hui-Qin An, Ding-Long Liu, Shu-Ming Guan, Dao-Ning Cui, Chang Shu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of Warming-promotion needling underlying improvement of vascular dementia (VD) by observing its effect on learning-memory ability and expression of hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor(nAChR)subunit proteins and mRNAs in rats with VD. METHODS: Sixty male SD rats were randomized into normal control, model, medication, warming-promotion needling(WPN), uniform reinforcing-reducing needling (URRN), and needle-twirling groups ( n =10 in each group)...
October 25, 2019: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Shu-Wei Yang, Tie-Ming Ma, Xing Tao, Si-Teng Pan, Xian-de Ma
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of deep electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation at "Huantiao"(GB30) on hindlimb motor function and expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK ) and p53 proteins in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in rats with chronic constrictive injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve. METHODS: Forty-eight SD rats (half male and half female) were randomly divided into control, model, shallow EA (SEA) stimulation and deep EA (DEA) stimulation groups ( n =12 in each group)...
October 25, 2019: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Jonna Berry, Ashley Gilbert, Justin Grodnitzky
Kava is an Oceanic plant in which the root is consumed as a beverage and is becoming increasingly popular. The effects of kava consumption may include sedation, euphoria, and impairment of motor coordination. This article demonstrates kava impairment through four cases of self-reported kava use supported with Drug Recognition Expert (DRE) evaluations of each subject. Subject's urines screened negative for common drugs of abuse by immunoassay analysis. Urine from cases 3 and 4 were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which yielded the presence of kavalactones...
November 2019: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Shimaalsadat Sajadi, Majid Kazemi, Babak Bakhtar, Hamid Ostadebrahimi
BACKGROUND: The neonates of addicted women are at risk for neonatal abstinence syndrome. This study aimed to compare the effects of auricular seed acupressure and foot reflexology on neonatal abstinence syndrome among the neonates of addicted women. METHODS: Thirty one neonates of addicted women were purposively recruited and randomly allocated through coin flipping to receive either foot reflexology then seed acupressure or seed acupressure then foot reflexology...
August 2019: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
2019-08-26 02:36:19
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