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Antimicrobial Stewardship

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125 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Whitney Buckel Infectious Diseases Pharmacist
Mina S Sedrak, Mitesh S Patel, Justin B Ziemba, Dana Murray, Esther J Kim, C Jessica Dine, Jennifer S Myers
Resident physicians routinely order unnecessary inpatient laboratory tests. As hospitalists face growing pressures to reduce low-value services, understanding the factors that drive residents' laboratory ordering can help steer resident training in high-value care. We conducted a qualitative analysis of internal medicine (IM) and general surgery (GS) residents at a large academic medical center to describe the frequency of perceived unnecessary ordering of inpatient laboratory tests, factors contributing to that behavior, and potential interventions to change it...
December 2016: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Karl J Madaras-Kelly, Muriel Burk, Christina Caplinger, Jefferson G Bohan, Melinda M Neuhauser, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Rongping Zhang, Francesca E Cunningham
OBJECTIVE: Practice guidelines recommend the shortest duration of antimicrobial therapy appropriate to treat uncomplicated pneumonia be prescribed to reduce the emergence of resistant pathogens. A national evaluation was conducted to assess the duration of therapy for pneumonia. DESIGN: Retrospective medication utilization evaluation. SETTING: Thirty Veterans Affairs medical centers. PATIENTS: Inpatients discharged with a diagnosis of pneumonia...
December 2016: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Jason Zucker, Jaimie Mittal, Shin-Pung Jen, Lucy Cheng, David Cennimo
BACKGROUND: There is a high prevalence of HIV infection in Newark, New Jersey, with University Hospital admitting approximately 600 HIV-infected patients per year. Medication errors involving antiretroviral therapy (ART) could significantly affect treatment outcomes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various stewardship interventions in reducing the prevalence of prescribing errors involving ART. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of all inpatients receiving ART for HIV treatment during three distinct 6-month intervals over a 3-year period...
March 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Megan R Mack, Jeffrey M Rohde, Diane Jacobsen, James R Barron, Christin Ko, Michael Goonewardene, David J Rosenberg, Arjun Srinivasan, Scott A Flanders
Inappropriate antimicrobial use in hospitalized patients contributes to antimicrobial-resistant infections and complications. We sought to evaluate the impact, barriers, and facilitators of antimicrobial stewardship best practices in a diverse group of hospital medicine programs. This multihospital initiative included 1 community nonteaching hospital, 2 community teaching hospitals, and 2 academic medical centers participating in a collaborative with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Institute for Healthcare Improvement...
August 2016: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Jesse M Pines, Joshua A Isserman, Patrick B Hinfey
BACKGROUND: Measurement of time to first antibiotic dose (TFAD) in the emergency department (ED) in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been controversial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate original articles reporting outcomes in CAP patients before and after TFAD measurement and assess whether it increases antibiotic overuse in non-CAP conditions. METHODS: We performed searches using PubMed, addressing two questions: 1) Is the measurement of TFAD associated with improved outcomes in CAP? and 2) Is the measurement of TFAD associated with antibiotic overuse or interventions that could result in overuse in non-CAP conditions? Two independent reviewers assessed studies addressing these questions...
October 2009: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Mary Richard Akpan, Raheelah Ahmad, Nada Atef Shebl, Diane Ashiru-Oredope
The growing problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has led to calls for antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) to control antibiotic use in healthcare settings. Key strategies include prospective audit with feedback and intervention, and formulary restriction and preauthorization. Education, guidelines, clinical pathways, de-escalation, and intravenous to oral conversion are also part of some programs. Impact and quality of ASP can be assessed using process or outcome measures. Outcome measures are categorized as microbiological, patient or financial outcomes...
January 13, 2016: Antibiotics
Andrew M Morris, Stacey Brener, Linda Dresser, Nick Daneman, Timothy H Dellit, Edina Avdic, Chaim M Bell
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial stewardship programs are being implemented in health care to reduce inappropriate antimicrobial use, adverse events, Clostridium difficile infection, and antimicrobial resistance. There is no standardized approach to evaluate the impact of these programs. OBJECTIVE: To use a structured panel process to define quality improvement metrics for evaluating antimicrobial stewardship programs in hospital settings that also have the potential to be used as part of public reporting efforts...
May 2012: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Sarah B Doernberg, Victoria Dudas, Kavita K Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic bacteriuria in the elderly commonly results in antibiotic administration and, in turn, contributes to antimicrobial resistance, adverse drug events, and increased costs. This is a major problem in the long-term care facility (LTCF) setting, where residents frequently transition to and from the acute-care setting, often transporting drug-resistant organisms across the continuum of care. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) targeting urinary tract infections (UTIs) at community LTCFs...
2015: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Mun Kit Lim, Pauline Siew Mei Lai, Sasheela Sri La Sri Ponnampalavanar, Sharifah Faridah Syed Omar, Nur Aishah Taib, Mohamad Yasim Yusof, Claire Marie Italiano, David Chee Ming Kong, Adeeba Kamarulzaman
INTRODUCTION: Studies exploring the appropriateness of therapeutic antibiotic use among surgical patients are limited, particularly in developing countries. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the appropriateness of antibiotics prescribed in a surgical setting in Malaysia. METHODOLOGY: A prospective observational study was conducted in two surgical wards at a tertiary hospital in Malaysia from November 2012-July 2013. Data was collected using a case report form...
November 30, 2015: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Jan-Willem H Dik, Ron Hendrix, Jerome R Lo-Ten-Foe, Kasper R Wilting, Prashant N Panday, Lisette E van Gemert-Pijnen, Annemarie M Leliveld, Job van der Palen, Alex W Friedrich, Bhanu Sinha
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance rates are increasing. This is, among others, caused by incorrect or inappropriate use of antimicrobials. To target this, a multidisciplinary antimicrobial stewardship-team (A-Team) was implemented at the University Medical Center Groningen on a urology ward. Goal of this study is to evaluate the clinical effects of the case-audits done by this team, looking at length of stay (LOS) and antimicrobial use. METHODS: Automatic e-mail alerts were sent after 48 h of consecutive antimicrobial use triggering the case-audits, consisting of an A-Team member visiting the ward, discussing the patient's therapy with the bed-side physician and together deciding on further treatment based on available diagnostics and guidelines...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
Clare Colligan, Jacqueline Sneddon, Gwen Bayne, William Malcolm, Gill Walker, Dilip Nathwani
BACKGROUND: The Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group (SAPG) was established in 2008 to lead delivery of the national antimicrobial stewardship programme. We performed a national self-reported survey in 2014 to evaluate stewardship activities delivered by regional Antimicrobial Management Teams (AMTs). An on-line survey was developed utilising validated indicators from a published European study along with questions specific to the Scottish context. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the responses received...
2015: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Angeliki P Messina, Dena van den Bergh, Debra A Goff
INTRODUCTION: Ensuring timely administration of antimicrobials is critical in the management of patients with infections. Mortality increases by 7.6% for every hour of delay in the administration of antimicrobial therapy in patients with sepsis. The time elapsed from the written antibiotic order to actual intravenous administration or 'hang-time' can often be several hours due to logistics within the hospital. Our purpose is to evaluate the change in compliance with administering antimicrobials within an hour of prescription after implementation of a national antibiotic stewardship pharmacist-driven hang-time process improvement protocol...
September 2015: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Hannah Nilholm, Linnea Holmstrand, Jonas Ahl, Fredrik Månsson, Inga Odenholt, Johan Tham, Eva Melander, Fredrik Resman
Background.  Antimicrobial stewardship programs are increasingly implemented in hospital care. They aim to simultaneously optimize outcomes for individual patients with infections and reduce financial and health-associated costs of overuse of antibiotics. Few studies have examined the effects of antimicrobial stewardship programs in settings with low proportions of antimicrobial resistance, such as in Sweden. Methods.  An antimicrobial stewardship program was introduced during 5 months of 2013 in a department of internal medicine in southern Sweden...
April 2015: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Alex Broom, Jennifer Broom, Emma Kirby, Stefanie Plage, Jon Adams
OBJECTIVE: To understand Australian hospital pharmacists' accounts of antibiotic use, and the potential role of pharmacy in antibiotic optimisation within a tertiary hospital setting. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Qualitative study, utilising semistructured interviews with 19 pharmacists in two hospitals in Queensland, Australia in 2014. Data was analysed using the framework approach and supported by NVivo10 qualitative data analysis software. RESULTS: The results demonstrate that (1) pharmacists' attitudes are ambivalent towards the significance of antibiotic resistance with optimising antibiotic use perceived as low priority; (2) pharmacists' current capacity to influence antibiotic decision-making is limited by the prescribing power of doctors and the perception of antibiotic use as a medical responsibility; and, (3) interprofessional and organisational barriers exist that prevent change in the hospital setting including medical hierarchies, limited contact with senior doctors and resource constraints resulting in insufficient pharmacy staffing to foster collaborative relationships and facilitate the uptake of their advice...
November 3, 2015: BMJ Open
Derek R MacFadden, Wayne L Gold, Ibrahim Al-Busaidi, Jeffrey D Craig, Dan Petrescu, Ilana S Saltzman, Jerome A Leis
BACKGROUND: Rising costs present a major threat to the sustainability of health care delivery. Resource stewardship is increasingly becoming an expected competency of physicians. The Choosing Wisely framework was used to introduce resource stewardship at a national educational retreat for infectious disease and microbiology residents. METHODS: During the 2014 Annual Canadian Infectious Disease and Microbiology Resident Retreat in Toronto, Ontario, infectious disease (n=50) and microbiology (n=17) residents representing 11 Canadian universities from six provinces, were invited to participate in a modified Delphi panel...
September 2015: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Michael J Smith, Jeffrey S Gerber, Adam L Hersh
BACKGROUND: The clinical and economic outcomes associated with pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and other supplemental antimicrobial stewardship (AS) interventions have not been well described or reviewed. METHODS: We performed a systematic review using PubMed to identify studies with any of the following terms in the title or abstract: "antimicrobial stewardship," "antimicrobial control," "antibiotic control," or "antibiotic stewardship." Studies were further limited to inpatient studies in the United States that contained the terms: "child," "children," "pediatric*" ("*" includes all terms with the same stem), "paediatric,*" "newborn," "infant," or "neonat,*" in the title or abstract...
December 2015: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Peter Davey
The pressing need to measure and improve antibiotic use was recognized >40 years ago, so why have we failed to achieve sustained improvement at scale? In his 2014 Reith Lectures about the future of medicine, the US surgeon Atul Gawande said that failure in medicine is largely due to ineptitude (failure to use existing knowledge) rather than ignorance (lack of knowledge). Consequently, it is notable that most interventions to improve antimicrobial prescribing are either designed to educate individual practitioners or patients about policies or to restrict prescribing to make practitioners follow policies...
November 2015: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
A R McCullough, S Parekh, J Rathbone, C B Del Mar, T C Hoffmann
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to systematically review quantitative and qualitative studies on the public's knowledge and beliefs about antibiotic resistance. METHODS: We searched four databases to July 2014, with no language or study design restrictions. Two reviewers independently extracted data. We calculated the median (IQR) of the proportion of participants who agreed with each statement and synthesized qualitative data by identifying emergent themes...
January 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Alike W van der Velden, Marijke M Kuyvenhoven, Theo J M Verheij
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic overprescribing is a significant problem. Multifaceted interventions improved antibiotic prescribing quality; their implementation and sustainability, however, have proved difficult. We analysed the effectiveness of an intervention embedded in the quality cycle of primary care practice accreditation on quantity and quality of antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract and ear infections (RTIs). METHODS: This was a pragmatic, cluster-randomized intervention trial in 88 Dutch primary care practices...
January 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Timothy M Rawson, Luke S P Moore, Mark J Gilchrist, Alison H Holmes
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a public health priority and leading patient safety issue. Globally, antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) has been integral in promoting therapeutic optimization whilst minimizing harmful antimicrobial use. A cross-sectional, observational study was undertaken to investigate the coverage of AMS and antibacterial resistance across clinical scientific conferences in 2014, as a surrogate marker for current awareness and attributed importance. METHODS: Clinical specialties were identified, and the largest corresponding clinical scientific/research conferences in 2014 determined (i) within the UK and (ii) internationally...
February 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
2015-11-29 21:50:51
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