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46 papers 100 to 500 followers
Georg Northoff
Despite intense neurobiological investigation in psychiatric disorders like major depressive disorder (MDD), the basic disturbance that underlies the psychopathological symptoms of MDD remains, nevertheless, unclear. Neuroimaging has focused mainly on the brain's extrinsic activity, specifically task-evoked or stimulus-induced activity, as related to the various sensorimotor, affective, cognitive, and social functions. Recently, the focus has shifted to the brain's intrinsic activity, otherwise known as its resting state activity...
January 15, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Emmanuelle C S Bostock, Kenneth C Kirkby, Michael I Garry, Bruce V M Taylor
OBJECTIVES: Mania in bipolar disorder (BD) and partial (focal) seizures (PS) arising from the temporal lobes, have a number of similarities. Typically, a chronic course of the disorders is punctuated by acute illness episodes. Common features of episodes may include sensory, perceptual, cognitive and affective changes. Both respond to anticonvulsant treatment. Common mechanisms imputed include neurotransmitters and kindling processes. Further investigation may improve understanding of the occurrence of both mania and PS, casting light on the relevance of temporal lobe mediated processes and pathology...
September 1, 2015: Journal of Affective Disorders
S Barzilay, D Feldman, A Snir, A Apter, V Carli, C W Hoven, C Wasserman, M Sarchiapone, D Wasserman
BACKGROUND: Joiner's interpersonal theory of suicide (IPTS) proposes that suicide results from the combination of a perception of burdening others, social alienation, and the capability for self-harm. The theory gained some empirical support, however the overall model has yet to be tested. This study aimed to test the main predictions of IPTS in a large community sample of Israeli adolescents. METHOD: 1196 Israeli Jewish and Arab high-school pupils participating in the SEYLE project completed a self-report questionnaire measuring perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, health risk behaviors, and non-suicidal self-injury (risk variables), and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (outcome measures)...
September 1, 2015: Journal of Affective Disorders
Anne Kästner, Martin Begemann, Tanja Maria Michel, Sarah Everts, Beata Stepniak, Christiane Bach, Luise Poustka, Joachim Becker, Tobias Banaschewski, Matthias Dose, Hannelore Ehrenreich
BACKGROUND: Behavioral phenotypical continua from health to disease suggest common underlying mechanisms with quantitative rather than qualitative differences. Until recently, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia were considered distinct nosologic entities. However, emerging evidence contributes to the blurring of symptomatic and genetic boundaries between these conditions. The present study aimed at quantifying behavioral phenotypes shared by autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia to prepare the ground for biological pathway analyses...
May 13, 2015: BMC Psychiatry
Praveetha Patalay, Peter Fonagy, Jessica Deighton, Jay Belsky, Panos Vostanis, Miranda Wolpert
BACKGROUND: Recently, a general psychopathology dimension reflecting common aspects among disorders has been identified in adults. This has not yet been considered in children and adolescents, where the focus has been on externalising and internalising dimensions. AIMS: To examine the existence, correlates and predictive value of a general psychopathology dimension in young people. METHOD: Alternative factor models were estimated using self-reports of symptoms in a large community-based sample aged 11-13...
July 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
James H Kocsis
Dr Zhou and colleagues have done an excellent job of reviewing and analyzing the world's literature on the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacologic agents used to augment antidepressants in treatment-resistant unipolar major depression. It seems we have some good news, but a lot remains to be accomplished. The good news is that several agents were found to have significant efficacy in terms of response (4 agents) and remission (6 agents) in comparison to placebo.
April 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
James Lock, Maria C La Via
This Practice Parameter reviews evidence-based practices for the evaluation and treatment of eating disorders in children and adolescents. Where empirical support is limited, clinical consensus opinion is used to supplement systematic data review. The Parameter focuses on the phenomenology of eating disorders, comorbidity of eating disorders with other psychiatric and medical disorders, and treatment in children and adolescents. Because the database related to eating disorders in younger patients is limited, relevant literature drawn from adult studies is included in the discussion...
May 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Xinyu Zhou, Arun V Ravindran, Bin Qin, Cinzia Del Giovane, Qi Li, Michael Bauer, Yiyun Liu, Yiru Fang, Tricia da Silva, Yuqing Zhang, Liang Fang, Xiao Wang, Peng Xie
OBJECTIVE: To comparatively analyze the efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of various augmentation agents in adult patients with treatment-resistant depression. DATA SOURCES: An electronic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EBSCO, PsycINFO, EAGLE, and NTIS for trials published up to December 2013 was conducted. Several clinical trial registry agencies and US Food and Drug Administration reports were also reviewed. No language, publication date, or publication status restrictions were imposed...
April 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Thalia C Eley, Tom A McAdams, Fruhling V Rijsdijk, Paul Lichtenstein, Jurgita Narusyte, David Reiss, Erica L Spotts, Jody M Ganiban, Jenae M Neiderhiser
OBJECTIVE: The transmission of anxiety within families is well recognized, but the underlying processes are poorly understood. Twin studies of adolescent anxiety demonstrate both genetic and environmental influence, and multiple aspects of parenting are associated with offspring anxiety. To date, the children-of-twins design has not been used to evaluate the relative contributions of genetic transmission compared with direct transmission of anxiety from parents to their offspring. METHOD: Anxiety and neuroticism measures were completed by 385 monozygotic and 486 dizygotic same-sex twin families (37% male twin pair families) from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden...
July 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
Matthew Pugh
Whilst cognitive-behavioural therapy has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of eating disorders, therapy outcomes and current conceptualizations still remain inadequate. In light of these shortcomings there has been growing interest in the utility of schema therapy applied to eating pathology. The present article first provides a narrative review of empirical literature exploring schemas and schema processes in eating disorders. Secondly, it critically evaluates outcome studies assessing schema therapy applied to eating disorders...
July 2015: Clinical Psychology Review
Kathrin Herzhoff, Jennifer L Tackett
BACKGROUND: Structural models of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms have gained empirical support but await greater empirical scrutiny on issues such as reconciliation between competing models, evidence for gender differences, and delineation of external correlates. More extensive validation evidence is particularly necessary in consideration of their incorporation in psychiatric nomenclature. METHODS: We fitted previously proposed, but competing, models to ODD symptoms assessed with the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (Shaffer et al...
January 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Edward A Selby, Amy Kranzler, Kara B Fehling, Emily Panza
After decades of researchers calling for the creation of a self-injury syndrome, the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders listed Nonsuicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) disorder as a condition for further study. The purpose of this review is to provide information about the current status of research on NSSI disorder, current arguments for and against the disorder's creation, and areas that require further research. Specifically, we address the five biggest obstacles to validation: the need for clear delimitation from other psychiatric disorders as well as suicidal behavior, the need to fully explore the developmental course of the disorder, empirically establishing the most appropriate diagnostic criteria, and the potential clinical utility of creating a new disorder...
June 2015: Clinical Psychology Review
Rob B K Wanders, Klaas J Wardenaar, Brenda W J H Penninx, Rob R Meijer, Peter de Jonge
BACKGROUND: Atypical response behavior on depression questionnaires may invalidate depression severity measurements. This study aimed to identify and investigate atypical profiles of depressive symptoms using a data-driven approach based on the item response theory (IRT). METHODS: A large cohort of participants completed the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology self-report (IDS-SR) at baseline (n=2329) and two-year follow-up (n=1971). Person-fit statistics were used to quantify how strongly each patient׳s observed symptom profile deviated from the expected profile given the group-based IRT model...
July 15, 2015: Journal of Affective Disorders
A K Leonpacher, D Liebers, M Pirooznia, D Jancic, D F MacKinnon, F M Mondimore, B Schweizer, J B Potash, P P Zandi, F S Goes
BACKGROUND: Distinguishing bipolar disorder (BP) from major depressive disorder (MDD) has important relevance for prognosis and treatment. Prior studies have identified clinical features that differ between these two diseases but have been limited by heterogeneity and lack of replication. We sought to identify depression-related features that distinguish BP from MDD in large samples with replication. METHOD: Using a large, opportunistically ascertained collection of subjects with BP and MDD we selected 34 depression-related clinical features to test across the diagnostic categories in an initial discovery dataset consisting of 1228 subjects (386 BPI, 158 BPII and 684 MDD)...
August 2015: Psychological Medicine
Benedikt Till, Markus Strauss, Gernot Sonneck, Thomas Niederkrotenthaler
BACKGROUND: Media stories on suicide can increase suicidal ideation, but little is known about variations in media effects with regard to audience vulnerability and story contents. AIMS: We investigated the impact of three drama films with suicidal content that varied with regard to the final outcome (suicide completion, mastery of crisis and death by natural causes) and tested the moderating effect of baseline suicidality of the participants on the effects. METHOD: Within a laboratory setting, we randomly assigned 95 adults to three film groups...
July 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Bruce A Arnow, Christine Blasey, Leanne M Williams, Donna M Palmer, William Rekshan, Alan F Schatzberg, Amit Etkin, Jayashri Kulkarni, James F Luther, A John Rush
OBJECTIVE: The study aims were 1) to describe the proportions of individuals who met criteria for melancholic, atypical, and anxious depressive subtypes, as well as subtype combinations, in a large sample of depressed outpatients, and 2) to compare subtype profiles on remission and change in depressive symptoms after acute treatment with one of three antidepressant medications. METHOD: Participants 18-65 years of age (N=1,008) who met criteria for major depressive disorder were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of treatment with escitalopram, sertraline, or extended-release venlafaxine...
August 1, 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
Ruth Tamrat, Minh-Phuong Huynh-Le, Madhav Goyal
OBJECTIVES: Despite the known adverse effects of sleep deprivation on recovery from illness, studies have shown that sleep deprivation remains an incompletely addressed problem among acutely ill inpatients. Behavioral interventions are recommended as first-line therapy prior to using pharmacologic therapy due to the side effects of sedative hypnotics. The objective of this systematic review was to identify non-pharmacologic interventions that have been used to improve sleep quality and quantity of non-intensive care unit (ICU) inpatients...
May 2014: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Peter Tyrer, Geoffrey M Reed, Mike J Crawford
Personality disorders are common and ubiquitous in all medical settings, so every medical practitioner will encounter them frequently. People with personality disorder have problems in interpersonal relationships but often attribute them wrongly to others. No clear threshold exists between types and degrees of personality dysfunction and its pathology is best classified by a single dimension, ranging from normal personality at one extreme through to severe personality disorder at the other. The description of personality disorders has been complicated over the years by undue adherence to overlapping and unvalidated categories that represent specific characteristics rather than the core components of personality disorder...
February 21, 2015: Lancet
Juliane Rausch, Andrea Gäbel, Krisztina Nagy, Nikolaus Kleindienst, Sabine C Herpertz, Katja Bertsch
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by antagonism, negative affectivity, disinhibition, and impairments in interpersonal functioning, including enhanced impulsive aggression. Interpersonal dysfunctions may be related to alterations in endocrine systems. The current study investigated alterations in basal activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) reproductive and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress system in BPD patients and their association to anger-related aggression with a particular focus on effects of gender and comorbid conditions of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
May 2015: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Mauricio Tohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2014: American Journal of Psychiatry
2015-03-24 07:01:55
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