Pierre Blais, Nisreen Husain, Jennifer R Kramer, Marc Kowalkowski, Hashem El-Serag, Fasiha Kanwal
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence and disease burden of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are increasing. Nonetheless, little is known about the processes related to identification, diagnosis, and referral of patients with NAFLD in routine clinical care. METHODS: Using automated data, we isolated a random sample of patients in a Veterans Administration facility who had ≥2 alanine transaminase (ALT) values >40 IU/ml >6 months apart in the absence of any positive results for hepatitis C RNA, hepatitis B surface antigen, or screens for excess alcohol use...
January 2015: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Greg C G Hugenholtz, Patrick G Northup, Robert J Porte, Ton Lisman
Recent advances in the understanding of the coagulopathy in chronic liver disease have provided a strong support for anticoagulation as a new therapeutic paradigm for patients with cirrhosis. Laboratory studies indicate that the net effect of changes in hemostasis in many patients with chronic liver disease is a hypercoagulable status. In turn, clinical thrombosis is increasingly recognized as a complication of liver disease. When occurring within the liver, thrombosis may even progress the disease course. Exciting preliminary data regarding the potential of low-molecular-weight heparin to slow down the progression of liver disease indicate that this class of drugs may improve outcome without a major increase in bleeding risk...
March 2015: Blood Reviews
Jayagopalan Veena, Anjaneyulu Muragundla, Srinivas Sidgiddi, Swaminathan Subramaniam
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are an increasingly common chronic liver disease closely associated with diabetes and obesity that have reached epidemic proportions. Reports on the prevalence of NAFLD have suggested that 27-34% of the general population in the USA and 40-90% of the obese population worldwide have this disease. Increasing urbanisation rate and associated inappropriate lifestyle changes are not only the risk factors of diabetes, but also unmask genetic predisposition in various populations for the metabolic syndrome and its manifestations including NAFLD and NASH...
December 14, 2014: British Journal of Nutrition
Ilaria Bianchi, Marco Carbone, Ana Lleo, Pietro Invernizzi
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) has been considered a multifactorial autoimmune disease presumably arising from a combination of environmental and genetic factors, with genetic inheritance mostly suggested by familial occurrence and high concordance rate among monozygotic twins. In the last decade, genome-wide association studies, new data on sex chromosome defects and instabilities, and initial evidence on the role of epigenetic abnormalities have strengthened the crucial importance of genetic and epigenetic factors in determining the susceptibility of PBC...
August 2014: Seminars in Liver Disease
Mohammad S Siddiqui, Michael Fuchs, Michael O Idowu, Velimir A Luketic, Sherry Boyett, Carol Sargeant, Richard T Stravitz, Puneet Puri, Scott Matherly, Richard K Sterling, Melissa Contos, Arun J Sanyal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated independently with increased cardiovascular mortality. Although NAFLD is associated with dyslipidemia, it is not clear whether recently identified markers of cardiovascular risk indicate liver disease progression in patients with histologically confirmed NAFLD. We evaluated an extensive panel of serum markers of cardiovascular risk in nondiabetic patients with histologically proven NAFLD. METHODS: We performed a case-control study in which we compared serum levels of laboratory markers of cardiovascular risk among 81 nondiabetic subjects with histologically confirmed NAFLD vs lean (N = 81) and obese (N = 81) individuals without NAFLD (based on liver fat score, controls)...
May 2015: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Robert S Rahimi, Amit G Singal, Jennifer A Cuthbert, Don C Rockey
IMPORTANCE: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common cause of hospitalization in patients with cirrhosis. Pharmacologic treatment for acute (overt) HE has remained the same for decades. OBJECTIVE: To compare polyethylene glycol 3350-electrolyte solution (PEG) and lactulose treatments in patients with cirrhosis admitted to the hospital for HE. We hypothesized that rapid catharsis of the gut using PEG may resolve HE more effectively than lactulose. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The HELP (Hepatic Encephalopathy: Lactulose vs Polyethylene Glycol 3350-Electrolyte Solution) study is a randomized clinical trial in an academic tertiary hospital of 50 patients with cirrhosis (of 186 screened) admitted for HE...
November 2014: JAMA Internal Medicine
Rajeev Khanna, Shiv K Sarin
NCPH is a heterogeneous group of liver disorders of vascular origin, leading to PHT with near normal HVPG. NCPF/IPH is a disorder of young adults or middle aged women, whereas EHPVO is a disorder of childhood. Early age acute or recurrent infections in an individual with thrombotic predisposition constitute the likely pathogenesis. Both disorders present with clinically significant PHT with preserved liver functions. Diagnosis is easy and can often be made clinically with support from imaging modalities. Management centers on control and prophylaxis of variceal bleeding...
February 2014: Journal of Hepatology
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