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Saude Mental—Mental Health

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By Manoel Vicente Barros Junior Brazilian Medical Student
Robin L Carhart-Harris
The entropic brain hypothesis proposes that within upper and lower limits, after which consciousness may be lost, the entropy of spontaneous brain activity indexes the informational richness of conscious states. Here the hypothesis is revisited four years on from its original publication. It is shown that the principle that the entropy of brain activity is elevated in the psychedelic state is increasingly well supported by separate and independent studies and analyses, and evidence for greater brain criticality under psychedelics is also highlighted...
November 2018: Neuropharmacology
Eric C Kutscher, Ryan Carnahan
With thousands of drug interactions possible, it is next to impossible to remember them all. Additionally, with the common use of psychiatric medicines in primary care practice, drug interactions may occur without recognition. Some drug interactions are negligible while other drug interactions are quite significant. It is most important to remember the drug interactions that can have a clinical effect. Since approximately half of all medications prescribed today are affected by P450 enzymes, it is important to recognize some important interactions...
January 2006: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
Charles F Caley
The promises of personalized medicine have health care professionals and the public at large in great anticipation of the idea that understanding a patient's genetic composition will provide clear answers to their treatment needs. For many practitioners in mental health care, there has been a question about whether or not CYP450 genetic polymorphisms can reliably inform psychotropic treatment response and tolerability. Unfortunately, the published evidence addressing this issue is mixed with only some researchers finding a positive correlation between a patient's inherited metabolizer status and either response or tolerability to a specific medication or a therapeutic class of medications...
October 2011: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Bruce Rind
Roberts, Glymour, and Koenen (2013), using instrumental variable models, argued that child abuse causes homosexual orientation, defined in part as any same-sex attractions. Their instruments were various negative family environment factors. In their analyses, they found that child sexual abuse (CSA) was more strongly related to homosexual orientation than non-sexual maltreatment was, especially among males. The present commentary therefore focused on male CSA. It is argued that Roberts et al.'s "abuse model" is incorrect and an alternative is presented...
November 2013: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Benjamin Chadwick, Michael L Miller, Yasmin L Hurd
Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), that interfere with the brain's endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain's developmental trajectory toward a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis users to motivational, affective, and psychotic disorders...
October 14, 2013: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jordana Phillips, Valerie J Fein-Zachary, Tejas S Mehta, Nancy Littlehale, Shambhavi Venkataraman, Priscilla J Slanetz
OBJECTIVE: Limited information exists regarding breast health in the transgender population. In this article, we review transgender terminology, barriers faced by transgender patients, current breast care screening recommendations, and normal and abnormal imaging findings in this population. CONCLUSION: Health disparities in the transgender population continue. Educating physicians on the breast health care needs of transgender patients is important for improving their care...
May 2014: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Sarah M Peitzmeier, Sari L Reisner, Padmini Harigopal, Jennifer Potter
BACKGROUND: Little is known about whether and how screening for cancers of natal reproductive structures, including cervical cancer, in female-to-male (FTM) transgender individuals differs from cancer screening among non-transgender females. OBJECTIVE: To investigate anecdotal reports from clinicians of high rates of inadequate Papanicolaou (Pap) tests among transgender men. DESIGN: Results of Pap tests performed on 233 FTM and 3,625 female patients at an urban community health center between 2006 and 2012 were extracted from an electronic medical record...
May 2014: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Andreas Hahn, Georg S Kranz, Martin Küblböck, Ulrike Kaufmann, Sebastian Ganger, Allan Hummer, Rene Seiger, Marie Spies, Dietmar Winkler, Siegfried Kasper, Christian Windischberger, Dick F Swaab, Rupert Lanzenberger
Although previous investigations of transsexual people have focused on regional brain alterations, evaluations on a network level, especially those structural in nature, are largely missing. Therefore, we investigated the structural connectome of 23 female-to-male (FtM) and 21 male-to-female (MtF) transgender patients before hormone therapy as compared with 25 female and 25 male healthy controls. Graph theoretical analysis of whole-brain probabilistic tractography networks (adjusted for differences in intracranial volume) showed decreased hemispheric connectivity ratios of subcortical/limbic areas for both transgender groups...
October 2015: Cerebral Cortex
Hudson W de Carvalho, Sérgio B Andreoli, Diogo R Lara, Christopher J Patrick, Maria I Quintana, Rodrigo A Bressan, Marcelo F Mello, Jair J Mari, Miguel R Jorge
BACKGROUND: Dimensional models of psychopathology demonstrate that two correlated factors of fear and distress account for the covariation among depressive and anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, these models tend to exclude variables relevant to psychopathology, such as temperament traits. This study examined the joint structure of DSM-IV-based major depression and anxiety disorders along with trait negative affect in a representative sample of adult individuals residing in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
October 2014: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Flavio Kapczinski, Luis Guilherme Streb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2014: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Giovanni A Salum, Diogo A DeSousa, Vera L Bosa, Ilaine Schuch, Marcelo Goldani, Luciano R Isolan, Stefania P Teche, Marcelo P Fleck, Luis A Rohde, Gisele G Manfro
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether internalizing disorders are associated with quality of life (QoL) in adolescents, even after accounting for shared risk factors. METHODS: The sample comprised 102 adolescents from a community cross-sectional study with an oversampling of anxious subjects. Risk factors previously associated with QoL were assessed and divided into five blocks organized hierarchically from proximal to distal sets of risk factors. RESULTS: Multiple regression analysis yielded a hierarchical model accounting for 72% of QoL variance...
October 2014: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Laura Weiss Roberts, Eugene V Beresin, John H Coverdale, Richard Balon, Alan K Louie, Jane Paik Kim, Maurice M Ohayon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2014: Academic Psychiatry
Jonathan W Bolton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Academic Psychiatry
Michelle Nigri Levitan, Marcos H Chagas, Ila M Linares, José A Crippa, Mauro B Terra, Alcir T Giglio, Joana L C Cordeiro, Giovana J Garcia, Rosa Hasan, Nathalia C Andrada, Antonio E Nardi
OBJECTIVE: To present the most relevant findings regarding the Brazilian Medical Association guidelines for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of panic disorder. METHODS: We used the methodology proposed by the Brazilian Medical Association for the Diretrizes Project. The MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, Web of Science, and LILACS online databases were queried for articles published from 1980 to 2012. Searchable questions were structured using the PICO format (acronym for "patient" [or population], "intervention" [or exposure], "comparison" [or control], and "outcome")...
October 2013: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
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