Kasia J Lipska, Harlan Krumholz, Tacara Soones, Sei J Lee
IMPORTANCE: There is substantial uncertainty about optimal glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. OBSERVATIONS: Four large randomized clinical trials (RCTs), ranging in size from 1791 to 11,440 patients, provide the majority of the evidence used to guide diabetes therapy. Most RCTs of intensive vs standard glycemic control excluded adults older than 80 years, used surrogate end points to evaluate microvascular outcomes and provided limited data on which subgroups are most likely to benefit or be harmed by specific therapies...
March 8, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
S Vincent Rajkumar, Shaji Kumar
The diagnosis and treatment of multiple myeloma has changed dramatically in the past decade. The disease definition has been updated to include highly specific biomarkers in addition to established markers of end-organ damage. The staging system has been revised to combine both measures of tumor burden and disease biology. Advances in therapy have resulted in a marked improvement in overall survival. New drugs introduced in the past few years include carfilzomib, pomalidomide, panobinostat, ixazomib, elotuzumab, and daratumumab...
January 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Dane K Wukich, Wei Shen, Katherine M Raspovic, Natalie C Suder, Donald T Baril, Efthymios Avgerinos
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to compare the findings of noninvasive arterial testing in patients with and without diabetic foot pathology. METHODS: The ABI (ankle brachial index), TBI (toe brachial index), and great toe pressures were measured in 207 patients. PAD (peripheral artery disease) was defined as an ABI < 0.91 on either extremity or a TBI < 0.7. RESULTS: PAD was identified in 103 of the 207 patients (49.8%), 80 patients with diabetic foot pathology and 23 patients with nondiabetic foot pathology...
December 2015: Foot & Ankle International
Guilermo E Umpierez
Many patients admitted to the hospital have diabetes mellitus-diagnosed or undiagnosed-and others develop hyperglycemia from the stress of hospitalization. This paper discusses the prevalence, outcomes, and evidence for best management of hyperglycemia and diabetes in hospitalized patients outside the critical care setting.
June 2011: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
Guillermo E Umpierrez, Richard Hellman, Mary T Korytkowski, Mikhail Kosiborod, Gregory A Maynard, Victor M Montori, Jane J Seley, Greet Van den Berghe
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to formulate practice guidelines on the management of hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients in the non-critical care setting. PARTICIPANTS: The Task Force was composed of a chair, selected by the Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee of The Endocrine Society, six additional experts, and a methodologist. EVIDENCE: This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence...
January 2012: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Lawrence S Weisberg
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hyperkalemia is one of the few potentially lethal electrolyte disturbances. Prompt recognition and expeditious treatment of severe hyperkalemia are expected to save lives. This review is intended to provide intensivists and other interested clinicians with an understanding of the pathophysiology that underlies hyperkalemia, and a rational approach to its management. METHODS: This article reviews and analyzes literature relevant to the pathophysiology and management of severe hyperkalemia...
December 2008: Critical Care Medicine
Vasileios S Nikolaou, Dimitrios Chytas, Demitrios Korres, Nicolas Efstathopoulos
Vanishing bone disease (Gorham-Stout syndrome) is a rare entity of unknown etiology, characterized by destruction of osseous matrix and proliferation of vascular structures, resulting in destruction and absorption of bone. Despite the extensive investigation of the pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease, its etiology hasn't been clarified and several theories exist. The syndrome can affect one or multiple bones of the patient, including the skull, the upper and lower extremities, the spine and pelvis. The clinical presentation of a patient suffering from vanishing bone disease includes, pain, functional impairment and swelling of the affected region, although asymptomatic cases have been reported, as well as cases in which the diagnosis was made after a pathologic fracture...
November 18, 2014: World Journal of Orthopedics
Muhammad Korim, Rizwan Patel, Patricia Allen, Jitendra Mangwani
Foot and ankle tuberculosis (TB) is a rare presentation of skeletal TB. The uncommon site along with low index of clinical suspicion in the western world leads to delays in the diagnosis and treatment. This can make joint sparing procedures less successful, especially in the midfoot where the joints can often be interconnected. Plain radiographs have low sensitivity and specificity and cross sectional imaging in the form of MRI or CT is more reliable. Treatment involves the use of multiple anti-tuberculous drugs in the first instance, followed by surgery to address any symptomatic deformity and/or secondary degenerative changes...
December 2014: Foot
I C Valencia, A Falabella, R S Kirsner, W H Eaglstein
UNLABELLED: Venous ulcers are the most common form of leg ulcers. Venous disease has a significant impact on quality of life and work productivity. In addition, the costs associated with the long-term care of these chronic wounds are substantial. Although the exact pathogenic steps leading from venous hypertension to venous ulceration remain unclear, several hypotheses have been developed to explain the development of venous ulceration. A better understanding of the current pathophysiology of venous ulceration has led to the development of new approaches in its management...
March 2001: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Andrew B Jull, Bruce Arroll, Varsha Parag, Jill Waters
BACKGROUND: Healing of venous leg ulcers is improved by the use of compression bandaging but some venous ulcers remain unhealed, and some people are unsuitable for compression therapy. Pentoxifylline, a drug which helps blood flow, has been used to treat venous leg ulcers. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of pentoxifylline (oxpentifylline or Trental 400) for treating venous leg ulcers, compared with a placebo or other therapies, in the presence or absence of compression therapy...
December 12, 2012: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
E Andrea Nelson, Robin J Prescott, Douglas R Harper, Barbara Gibson, Dorothy Brown, C Vaughan Ruckley
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effectiveness of pentoxifylline, knitted viscose or hydrocolloid dressings, and single-layer or four-layer bandaging for venous ulceration. METHOD: A factorial randomized controlled trial with 24-week follow-up was conducted in leg ulcer clinics in Scotland with blinded allocation to pentoxifylline (1200 mg) or placebo, knitted viscose or hydrocolloid dressings, and single-layer or four-layer bandages. The study enrolled 245 adults with venous ulcers...
January 2007: Journal of Vascular Surgery
W W Coon, P W Willis, J B Keller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1973: Circulation
Ines B Wu, Robert A Schwartz
Reiter's syndrome, also known as reactive arthritis, is the classic triad of conjunctivitis, urethritis, and arthritis occurring after an infection, particularly those in the urogenital or gastrointestinal tract. Dermatologic manifestations are common, including keratoderma blennorrhagicum, circinate balanitis, ulcerative vulvitis, nail changes, and oral lesions. Epidemiologically, the disease is more common in men, although cases have also been reported in children and women. The pathophysiology has yet to be elucidated, although infectious and immune factors are likely involved...
July 2008: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
N Putschky, H-G Pott, J G Kuipers, H Zeidler, M Hammer, J Wollenhaupt
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of a 10-day and a 4-month doxycylcine course for the treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis-reactive arthritis (Ct-ReA). METHODS: Patients with active Ct-ReA were enrolled in a prospective, multicentre, double-blind, controlled clinical trial and randomised to receive doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for 10 days followed either by placebo or by continued doxycycline 100 mg twice daily over 4 months. Various clinical and laboratory parameters referring to disease activity were recorded in the beginning and at the end of treatment...
November 2006: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
J Michael Gaziano, Philip Greenland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 17, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease. We investigated whether the angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor ramipril can lower these risks in patients with diabetes. METHODS: 3577 people with diabetes included in the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation study, aged 55 years or older, who had a previous cardiovascular event or at least one other cardiovascular risk factor, no clinical proteinuria, heart failure, or low ejection fraction, and who were not taking ACE inhibitors, were randomly assigned ramipril (10 mg/day) or placebo, and vitamin E or placebo, according to a two-by-two factorial design...
January 22, 2000: Lancet
P King, I Peacock, R Donnelly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1999: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Richard M Kaufman, Benjamin Djulbegovic, Terry Gernsheimer, Steven Kleinman, Alan T Tinmouth, Kelley E Capocelli, Mark D Cipolle, Claudia S Cohn, Mark K Fung, Brenda J Grossman, Paul D Mintz, Barbara A O'Malley, Deborah A Sesok-Pizzini, Aryeh Shander, Gary E Stack, Kathryn E Webert, Robert Weinstein, Babu G Welch, Glenn J Whitman, Edward C Wong, Aaron A R Tobian
BACKGROUND: The AABB (formerly, the American Association of Blood Banks) developed this guideline on appropriate use of platelet transfusion in adult patients. METHODS: These guidelines are based on a systematic review of randomized, clinical trials and observational studies (1900 to September 2014) that reported clinical outcomes on patients receiving prophylactic or therapeutic platelet transfusions. An expert panel reviewed the data and developed recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework...
February 3, 2015: Annals of Internal Medicine
C R Wyss, R M Harrington, E M Burgess, F A Matsen
We measured local transcutaneous oxygen tension at the foot and proximal and distal to the knee in 162 patients who then had 206 amputations. When the values for oxygen tension at the foot and distal to the knee were compared with the success or failure of healing after an amputation of the foot or distal to the knee, respectively, a clearly increasing probability of failure was correlated with decreasing transcutaneous oxygen tension. However, even at a tension of zero the probability of failure was not 100 per cent...
February 1988: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
2014-10-29 15:56:29
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