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Internal medicine CMN SXXI

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125 papers 100 to 500 followers
Alex J Sinclair, Aaron Sturrock, Brendan Davies, Manjit Matharu
Headache is one of the most common conditions presenting to the neurology clinic, yet a significant proportion of these patients are unsatisfied by their clinic experience. Headache can be extremely disabling; effective treatment is not only essential for patients but is rewarding for the physician. In this first of two parts review of headache, we provide an overview of headache management, emerging therapeutic strategies and an accessible interpretation of clinical guidelines to assist the busy neurologist...
December 2015: Practical Neurology
Jelena Maletkovic, Andrew Drexler
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are potentially fatal hyperglycemic crises that occur as acute complications of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. The authors provide a review of the current epidemiology, precipitating factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, evaluation, and treatment of DKA and HHS. The discovery of insulin in 1921 changed the life expectancy of patients with diabetes mellitus dramatically. Today, almost a century later, DKA and HHS remain significant causes of morbidity and mortality across different countries, ages, races, and socioeconomic groups and a significant economic burden for society...
December 2013: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
G W Amsden
BACKGROUND: It has been recognized for more than 20 years that the macrolides have immunomodulatory effects that are beneficial for those suffering from chronic pulmonary inflammatory syndromes, such as diffuse panbronchiolitis, cystic fibrosis, asthma and bronchiectasis. The macrolides have consistently been associated with decreased length of stay and mortality when used alone or in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics. This effect can be demonstrated against combinations consisting of beta-lactams and other antibiotics active against 'atypical chest pathogens' when treating community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in hospitalized patients...
January 2005: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Natalija Novak, Thomas Bieber, Wen-Ming Peng
Allergens and microbial antigens impact on effector cells and antigen-presenting cells in allergic diseases. Allergens bind specifically to immunoglobulin E (IgE) linked to the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI) and stimulate a cascade of cellular events. This leads to the release of mediators of allergic reactions by effector cells on the one hand and antigen uptake, presentation and T cell priming by antigen-presenting cells on the other hand. In contrast, microbial antigens are recognized by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system, to which Toll-like receptors (TLRs) belong...
2010: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
M Maurer, M Magerl, M Metz, F Siebenhaar, K Weller, K Krause
BACKGROUND: Chronic urticaria is a common disorder characterized by recurrent wheals, angioedema, or both. Several differential diagnoses need to be considered in patients presenting with wheals and/or angioedema. These include rare diseases such as autoinflammatory syndromes and urticarial vasculitis in patients with recurrent wheals and bradykinin-mediated angioedema in patients with recurrent swellings. AIM AND RESULT: In order to not miss these conditions, we have developed a symptom-based diagnostic algorithm for the management of patients with wheals and/or angioedema...
June 2013: Allergy
Konrad Bork
Urticarial wheals and angioedema are 2 different clinical symptoms. Both belong to various disease entities, and may occur in combination or be isolated. Increased vasodilation and vasopermeability is a common feature. Histamine and bradykinin are well-known mediators. For clinical purposes, 3 groups of diseases can be differentiated: diseases with urticaria and angioedema, diseases with angioedema alone, and diseases with urticarial lesions without angioedema. The article presents an overview of these groups and the role of the main mediators, and the clinical features of urticaria and angioedema...
February 2014: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
Werner J Pichler, Dean J Naisbitt, B Kevin Park
Drug hypersensitivity research has progressed enormously in recent years, and a greater understanding of mechanisms has contributed to improved drug safety. Progress has been made in genetics, enabling personalized medicine for certain drugs, and in understanding drug interactions with the immune system. In a recent meeting in Rome, the clinical, chemical, pharmacologic, immunologic, and genetic aspects of drug hypersensitivity were discussed, and certain aspects are briefly summarized here. Small chemicals, including drugs, can induce immune reactions by binding as a hapten to a carrier protein...
March 2011: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Mónica Marazuela, María A García-López, Nicté Figueroa-Vega, Hortensia de la Fuente, Brenda Alvarado-Sánchez, Adriana Monsiváis-Urenda, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid, Roberto González-Amaro
CONTEXT: T regulatory cells have a key role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases in different animal models. However, less information is available regarding these cells in human autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to analyze different regulatory T cell subsets in patients with AITD. DESIGN: We studied by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry different T regulatory cell subsets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and thyroid cell infiltrates from 20 patients with AITD...
September 2006: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Simone Burgler, Nadia Ouaked, Claudio Bassin, Tomasz M Basinski, Pierre-Yves Mantel, Kerstin Siegmund, Norbert Meyer, Cezmi A Akdis, Carsten B Schmidt-Weber
BACKGROUND: T(H)17 cells are of pathologic relevance in autoimmune disorders and presumably also in allergy and asthma. Regulatory T (Treg) cells, in contrast, suppress inflammatory and allergen-driven responses. Despite these disparate functions, both T-cell subsets have been shown to be dependent on TGF-beta for their development. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze the differentiation and function of human T(H)17 cells in comparison with other T(H) cell subsets...
March 2009: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Akiko Iwasaki, Ruslan Medzhitov
Microbial infections are recognized by the innate immune system both to elicit immediate defense and to generate long-lasting adaptive immunity. To detect and respond to vastly different groups of pathogens, the innate immune system uses several recognition systems that rely on sensing common structural and functional features associated with different classes of microorganisms. These recognition systems determine microbial location, viability, replication and pathogenicity. Detection of these features by recognition pathways of the innate immune system is translated into different classes of effector responses though specialized populations of dendritic cells...
April 2015: Nature Immunology
Carlos Alberto García López, Fernando Laredo-Sánchez, José Malagón-Rangel, Miguel G Flores-Padilla, Haiko Nellen-Hummel
Intestinal pseudo-obstruction secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rare syndrome described in recent decades. There are slightly over 30 published cases in the English language literature, primarily associated with renal and hematological disease activity. Its presentation and evolution are a diagnostic challenge for the clinician. We present four cases of intestinal pseudo-obstruction due to lupus in young Mexican females. One patient had a previous diagnosis of SLE and all presented with a urinary tract infection of varying degrees of severity during their evolution...
August 28, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Graham S Taylor, Heather M Long, Jill M Brooks, Alan B Rickinson, Andrew D Hislop
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is usually acquired silently early in life and carried thereafter as an asymptomatic infection of the B lymphoid system. However, many circumstances disturb the delicate EBV-host balance and cause the virus to display its pathogenic potential. Thus, primary infection in adolescence can manifest as infectious mononucleosis (IM), as a fatal illness that magnifies the immunopathology of IM in boys with the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease trait, and as a chronic active disease leading to life-threatening hemophagocytosis in rare cases of T or natural killer (NK) cell infection...
2015: Annual Review of Immunology
Dagmara Hering
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2015: Lancet
T Zuberbier, W Aberer, R Asero, C Bindslev-Jensen, Z Brzoza, G W Canonica, M K Church, L F Ensina, A Giménez-Arnau, K Godse, M Gonçalo, C Grattan, J Hebert, M Hide, A Kaplan, A Kapp, A H Abdul Latiff, P Mathelier-Fusade, M Metz, A Nast, S S Saini, M Sánchez-Borges, P Schmid-Grendelmeier, F E R Simons, P Staubach, G Sussman, E Toubi, G A Vena, B Wedi, X J Zhu, M Maurer
This guideline is the result of a systematic literature review using the 'Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation' (GRADE) methodology and a structured consensus conference held on 28 and 29 November 2012, in Berlin. It is a joint initiative of the Dermatology Section of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the EU-funded network of excellence, the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2) LEN), the European Dermatology Forum (EDF), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO) with the participation of delegates of 21 national and international societies...
July 2014: Allergy
Letizia Barutta, Domenico Ferrigno, Remo Melchio, Valentina Borretta, Christian Bracco, Chiara Brignone, Alessia Giraudo, Cristina Serraino, Enrico Baralis, Maurizio Grosso, Luigi Maria Fenoglio
We present a case of hepatic abscess caused by Brucella melitensis (or hepatic brucelloma) diagnosed in a 59-year-old man 33 years after an episode of acute brucellosis that had completely resolved. Recovery from symptoms and a decrease in lesion size seen on radiological assessment were achieved through prolonged combined antibiotic therapy, without the need for surgery. Hepatic brucelloma is a rare complication of brucellosis, which is the most common zoonosis globally, mainly occurring in specific endemic areas and causing a range of clinical manifestations...
November 2013: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Hyun Jeong Park, Seong Hyun Kim, Kyung Mi Jang, Soon Jin Lee, Min Jung Park, Dongil Choi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in differentiating hepatic abscess from malignant mimickers with an emphasis on periphery of the lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with hepatic abscess and 74 patients with malignant hepatic tumors were included, who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. For qualitative and quantitative analysis, signal intensities and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the periphery were assessed...
December 2013: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Jose Gutierrez, Randolph S Marshall, Ronald M Lazar
IMPORTANCE: Whether cognition is influenced by arterial stiffness in the absence of vascular disease remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that indirect measures of arterial stiffness are important predictors of cognitive performance and that this relationship varies depending on the presence of vascular disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 2573 noninstitutionalized US adults randomly selected from 2 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002)...
March 2015: JAMA Neurology
Naciye Sinem Gezer, Işıl Başara, Canan Altay, Mustafa Harman, Laurence Rocher, Nevzat Karabulut, Mustafa Seçil
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%-70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation...
March 2015: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
Aaron W Michels, Peter A Gottlieb
The autoimmune polyglandular syndromes-a group of syndromes comprising a combination of endocrine and nonendocrine autoimmune diseases-differ in their component diseases and in the immunologic features of their pathogenesis. One of the three main syndromes, type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS-1), has a unique pathogenic mechanism owing to mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, which results in the loss of central tolerance-a process by which developing T cells with potential reactivity for self-antigens are eliminated during early differentiation in the thymus...
May 2010: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Kishan S Parikh, Rajiv Agarwal, Amit K Mehrotra, Rajiv S Swamy
The diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome relies on clinical history, electrocardiographic (ECG) changes, and cardiac biomarkers; but within the spectrum of acute coronary syndrome, there exist subtle presentations that cannot afford to be overlooked. Wellens syndrome is one such example, in which a patient can present with both ECG changes that are not classic for myocardial ischemia and negative cardiac biomarkers. The characteristic ECG findings associated with Wellens syndrome consist of deep, symmetric T-wave inversions in the anterior precordial leads...
January 2012: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
2015-01-07 00:29:57
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