María M Adeva-Andany, Eva Rañal-Muíño, Matilde Vila-Altesor, Carlos Fernández-Fernández, Raquel Funcasta-Calderón, Elvira Castro-Quintela
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a frequent disorder largely preventable. The aim of this review was to summarize information on the association between dietary habits and the risk of developing T2D. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature search using the PubMed database from its inception to June, 2019. Articles were restricted to those written in English and concerning human subjects. Relevant manuscripts found in the list of references of the retrieved articles were also used in preparation for the review...
December 2019: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
François Mariotti, Christopher D Gardner
While animal products are rich in protein, the adequacy of dietary protein intake from vegetarian/vegan diets has long been controversial. In this review, we examine the protein and amino acid intakes from vegetarian diets followed by adults in western countries and gather information in terms of adequacy for protein and amino acids requirements, using indirect and direct data to estimate nutritional status. We point out that protein-rich foods, such as traditional legumes, nuts and seeds, are sufficient to achieve full protein adequacy in adults consuming vegetarian/vegan diets, while the question of any amino acid deficiency has been substantially overstated...
November 4, 2019: Nutrients
Jason P Rocha, Janese Laster, Bhavyata Parag, Nihar U Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Understand the current prevalence, health benefits, and health risks of vegetarian diets. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the publishing of the Adventist Health Study 2 in 2013, there have been several prospective diet studies demonstrating and challenging the health benefits and risks of the vegetarian diet. The definition of the vegetarian diet has become more specific over time and requires standardization for research purposes. Despite an uptrend in sales rates of plant-based foods per year, a 2018 Gallup poll showed overall stagnation of the percentage of self-reported vegetarians and vegans compared to percentages obtained 6 years prior...
December 2019: Current Nutrition Reports
Ujué Fresán, Joan Sabaté
To maintain planetary health, human activities must limit the use of Earth's resources within finite boundaries and avoid environmental degradation. At present, food systems account for a substantial use of natural resources and contribute considerably to climate change, degradation of land, water use, and other impacts, which in turn threaten human health through food insecurity. Additionally, current dietary patterns, rich in animal products and excessive in calories, are detrimental to both population and planetary health...
November 1, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Keelia O'Malley, Amelia Willits-Smith, Rodrigo Aranda, Martin Heller, Diego Rose
Objectives: The food system contributes substantially to current environmental problems, which has prompted researchers to evaluate both environmental as well as nutritional impacts of dietary choices. However, there has been no research on the impacts of popular diets as consumed in the US. This study estimated the carbon footprint and diet quality of popular diets as selected by a nationally representative sample of US consumers. Methods: The 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 24-hour recall data were used to categorize individual adult diets ( N  = 16,800) into one of six mutually exclusive dietary patterns: vegan, vegetarian, pescatarian, paleolithic, and ketogenic...
June 2019: Current Developments in Nutrition
Amy Krueger, Albert Sanchez, Jerry Shavlik, Francisco Ramirez, Richard Lukans, Randy Bivens, Sherine Brown-Fraser
Objectives: Hypertension increases cardiovascular disease mortality; it is worldwide; and it is the number one cause for medical interventions in the U.S. We tested the effectiveness of reversing systolic blood pressure (SBP) in older adults by an intensive lifestyle of a wholefoods vegan diet together with other health principles of the Adventist Lifestyle that prevents hypertension. Methods: This is a retrospective 2-week pretest-posttest analysis in 1132 hypertensive men and women (mean ± SD: 64...
June 2019: Current Developments in Nutrition
Désirée Hagmann, Michael Siegrist, Christina Hartmann
OBJECTIVE: Diets lower in meat are considered both highly beneficial for human health and more environmentally friendly. The present study compared consumer groups with different self-declared diet styles regarding meat (vegetarians/vegans, pescatarians, low- and regular meat consumers) in terms of their motives, protein consumption, diet quality and weight status. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from the Swiss Food Panel 2.0 (survey 2017). SETTING: Switzerland, Europe...
September 2019: Public Health Nutrition
Victor W Zhong, Linda Van Horn, Marilyn C Cornelis, John T Wilkins, Hongyan Ning, Mercedes R Carnethon, Philip Greenland, Robert J Mentz, Katherine L Tucker, Lihui Zhao, Arnita F Norwood, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Norrina B Allen
IMPORTANCE: Cholesterol is a common nutrient in the human diet and eggs are a major source of dietary cholesterol. Whether dietary cholesterol or egg consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations of dietary cholesterol or egg consumption with incident CVD and all-cause mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Individual participant data were pooled from 6 prospective US cohorts using data collected between March 25, 1985, and August 31, 2016...
March 19, 2019: JAMA
Maria Enrica Bettinelli, Elena Bezze, Laura Morasca, Laura Plevani, Gabriele Sorrentino, Daniela Morniroli, Maria Lorella Giannì, Fabio Mosca
The number of people adopting vegetarian diets is constantly increasing, and many among them are young parents who decide to share their diet with their children. The aim of this study was to investigate health professionals' knowledge regarding the adoption of vegetarian diets from pregnancy to adolescence. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. The administered questionnaire, which was based on the recommendations of the most up-to-date guidelines, included two macro areas: The first investigated the sociodemographic and professional profile of the interviewees and the second addressed the knowledge of the participants regarding vegetarian diets...
May 23, 2019: Nutrients
Josefine Nebl, Jan Philipp Schuchardt, Alexander Ströhle, Paulina Wasserfurth, Sven Haufe, Julian Eigendorf, Uwe Tegtbur, Andreas Hahn
Vegetarian diets have gained popularity in sports. However, few data exist on the status of micronutrients and related biomarkers for vegetarian and vegan athletes. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the micronutrient status of omnivorous (OMN, n = 27), lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV, n = 26), and vegan (VEG, n = 28) recreational runners. Biomarkers of vitamin B12 , folate, vitamin D, and iron were assessed. Additionally, serum levels of calcium, magnesium, and zinc were examined. Lifestyle factors and supplement intake were recorded via questionnaires...
May 22, 2019: Nutrients
Josefine Nebl, Sven Haufe, Julian Eigendorf, Paulina Wasserfurth, Uwe Tegtbur, Andreas Hahn
BACKGROUND: In search of the right nutrition for the athlete, numerous nutritional strategies and diets were discussed over time. However, the influence of plant-based diets, especially veganism, on exercise capacity has not been clarified. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the exercise capacity of vegan (VEG, n = 24), lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV, n = 26) and omnivorous (OMN, n = 26) recreational runners. To determine maximal exercise capacity, participants performed an incremental exercise test on a bicycle ergometer until voluntary exhaustion...
May 20, 2019: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Aleksandra Tomova, Igor Bukovsky, Emilie Rembert, Willy Yonas, Jihad Alwarith, Neal D Barnard, Hana Kahleova
The difference in gut microbiota composition between individuals following vegan or vegetarian diets and those following omnivorous diets is well documented. A plant-based diet appears to be beneficial for human health by promoting the development of more diverse and stable microbial systems. Additionally, vegans and vegetarians have significantly higher counts of certain Bacteroidetes -related operational taxonomic units compared to omnivores. Fibers (that is, non-digestible carbohydrates, found exclusively in plants) most consistently increase lactic acid bacteria, such as Ruminococcus, E...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Elena C Hemler, Frank B Hu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Plant-based diets have been widely promoted for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction. This review discusses the various definitions of plant-based diets and summarizes their associations with CVD risk, specifically distinguishing between healthy and unhealthy plant-based diets. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite wide variation in definition, most studies suggest that plant-based diets are generally beneficial for cardiovascular health. Many previous studies have defined plant-based diets by the complete exclusion of meat or animal products, while others have accounted for plant-based diets including moderate amounts of animal-source foods...
March 20, 2019: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
D Papamichou, D B Panagiotakos, C Itsiopoulos
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of the present review is to examine evidence from published studies on the effectiveness of six or more months of low carbohydrate, macrobiotic, vegan, vegetarian, Mediterranean and intermittent fasting (IF) diets compared to low fat diets on diabetes control and management. METHODS AND RESULTS: In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, Cochrane CENTRAL, PubMed and Scopus databases were systematically searched for relevant studies. Twenty randomised controlled trials (RCTs) > 6 months that investigated the effectiveness of various dietary patterns on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were included...
June 2019: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Tina H T Chiu, Chin-Hsiu Liu, Chia-Chen Chang, Ming-Nan Lin, Chin-Lon Lin
BACKGROUNDS & AIMS: Plant-based diets may target multiple pathways in gout pathogenesis (uric acid reduction and anti-inflammation) while improving gout associated cardiometabolic comorbidities. We aim to prospectively examine the relationship between a vegetarian diet and gout, and to explore if this relationship is independent of hyperuricemia. METHODS: We followed 4903 participants in the Tzu Chi Health Study (Cohort1, recruited in 2007-2009) and 9032 participants in the Tzu Chi Vegetarian Study (Cohort2, recruited in 2005) until end of 2014...
March 2020: Clinical Nutrition
Friederike Barthels, Saskia Poerschke, Romina Müller, Reinhard Pietrowsky
PURPOSE: This study aimed to analyze the association between the importance of several reasons to follow a vegan diet and the degree of orthorexic eating behavior in a sample of vegan individuals (N = 65, 53.8% women, age: M = 28.22 (SD = 9.13) years, BMI: M = 22.91 (SD = 3.44) kg/m2 ). RESULTS: The results reveal that orthorexic eating behavior is associated with the importance of the underlying motives health, esthetics and healing, whereas animal welfare, politics and ecology are not linked to orthorexia...
June 2020: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Stine Weder, Morwenna Hoffmann, Katja Becker, Ute Alexy, Markus Keller
Due to the lack of current, large-scale studies examining their dietary intake and health, there are concerns about vegetarian (VG) and vegan (VN) diets in childhood. Therefore, the Vegetarian and Vegan Children Study (VeChi Diet Study) examined the energy and macronutrient intake as well as the anthropometrics of 430 VG, VN, and omnivorous (OM) children (1⁻3 years) in Germany. A 3-day weighed dietary record assessed dietary intake, and an online questionnaire assessed lifestyle, body weight (BW), and height...
April 12, 2019: Nutrients
R Norwood, T Cruwys, V S Chachay, J Sheffield
OBJECTIVE: Previous research has identified several psychological factors associated with dietary restriction but has focused almost exclusively on the subcategory of people following a weight loss diet. Little is known about the psychological factors associated with other kinds of restrictive dietary patterns. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether the identified psychological characteristics of dieters (e.g. elevated disordered eating behaviours, poor well-being) are a cause of dieting, follow from calorie restriction or are the result of cognitive restraint...
April 2019: Obesity Science & Practice
Pramil N Singh, Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, Wendy Shih, Nancy Collado, Lap T Le, Krystal Silguero, Dennys Estevez, Michael Jordan, Hector Flores, David E Hayes-Bautista, William J McCarthy
Background: The Hispanic/Latino population in the US is experiencing high rates of obesity and cardio-metabolic disease that may be attributable to a nutrition transition away from traditional diets emphasizing whole plant foods. In the US, plant-based diets have been shown to be effective in preventing and controlling obesity and cardio-metabolic disease in large samples of primarily non-Hispanic subjects. Studying this association in US Hispanic/Latinos could inform culturally tailored interventions. Objective: To examine whether the plant-based diet pattern that is frequently followed by Hispanic/Latino Seventh-day Adventists is associated with lower levels of adiposity and adiposity-related biomarkers...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
O Lindahl, L Lindwall, A Spångberg, A Stenram, P A Ockerman
Thirty-five patients who had suffered from bronchial asthma for an average of 12 yr, all receiving long-term medication, 20 including cortisone, were subject to therapy with vegan food for 1 yr. In almost all cases, medication was withdrawn or drastically reduced. There was a significant decrease in asthma symptoms. Twenty-four patients (69%) fulfilled the treatment. Of these, 71% reported improvement at 4 months and 92% at 1 yr. There was a significant improvement in a number of clinical variables; for example, vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at one sec and physical working capacity, as well as a significant change in various biochemical indices as haptoglobin, IgM, IgE, cholesterol, and triglycerides in blood...
1985: Journal of Asthma
2019-03-16 17:47:15
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