collection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32739970/antimicrobial-resistance-in-icus-an-update-in-the-light-of-the-covid-19-pandemic
#1
Rafael Cantón, Desirèe Gijón, Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe current antimicrobial resistance in ESKAPE Gram-negative microorganisms and their situation in the ICUs, the implication of the so-called high-risk clones (HiRCs) involved in the spread of antimicrobial resistance as well as relevance of the COVID-19 pandemic in the potential increase of resistance. RECENT FINDINGS: Extended-spectrum and carbapenemase producing Enterobacterales and multidrug and extensive drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii have increased worldwide...
July 27, 2020: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32706859/remdesivir-for-severe-covid-19-versus-a-cohort-receiving-standard-of-care
#2
Susan A Olender, Katherine K Perez, Alan S Go, Bindu Balani, Eboni G Price-Haywood, Nirav S Shah, Su Wang, Theresa L Walunas, Shobha Swaminathan, Jihad Slim, BumSik Chin, Stéphane De Wit, Shamim M Ali, Alex Soriano Viladomiu, Philip Robinson, Robert L Gottlieb, Tak Yin Owen Tsang, I-Heng Lee, Richard H Haubrich, Anand P Chokkalingam, Lanjia Lin, Lijie Zhong, B Nebiyou Bekele, Robertino Mera-Giler, Joel Gallant, Lindsey E Smith, Anu O Osinusi, Diana M Brainard, Hao Hu, Chloé Phulpin, Holly Edgar, Helena Diaz-Cuervo, Jose I Bernardino
BACKGROUND: We compared the efficacy of the antiviral agent, remdesivir, versus standard-of-care treatment in adults with severe COVID-19 using data from a phase 3 remdesivir trial and a retrospective cohort of patients with severe COVID-19 treated with standard-of-care. METHODS: GS-US-540-5773 is an ongoing phase 3, randomized, open-label trial comparing two courses of remdesivir (remdesivir-cohort). GS-US-540-5807 is an ongoing real-world, retrospective cohort study of clinical outcomes in patients receiving standard-of-care treatment (non-remdesivir-cohort)...
July 24, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32662712/caspofungin-a-review-of-its-characteristics-activity-and-use-in-intensive-care-units
#3
Seyed MohammadReza Hashemian, Tayebeh Farhadi, Ali Akbar Velayati
INTRODUCTION: Candidemia is the fourth frequent reason of healthcare-related bloodstream infections in critically ill patients. For initial management of (suspected) invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients, usage of an echinocandin, e.g. caspofungin, has been recommended. AREAS COVERED: In this study, characteristics of caspofungin and its use in intensive care unit (ICU) patients are reviewed based on an electronic search using PubMed and Google scholar...
July 23, 2020: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32612826/antimicrobial-stewardship-programs-a-two-part-narrative-review-of-step-wise-design-and-issues-of-controversy-part-i-step-wise-design-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-program
#4
REVIEW
Fredrik Resman
Regardless of one's opinion of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs), it is hardly possible to work in hospital care and not be exposed to the term or its practical effects. Despite the term being relatively new, the number of publications in the field is vast, including several excellent reviews of general and specific aspects. Work in antimicrobial stewardship is complex, and includes not only aspects of infectious disease and microbiology, but also of epidemiology, genetics, behavioural psychology, systems science, economics and ethics, to name a few...
January 2020: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32423584/remdesivir-in-adults-with-severe-covid-19-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-multicentre-trial
#5
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Yeming Wang, Dingyu Zhang, Guanhua Du, Ronghui Du, Jianping Zhao, Yang Jin, Shouzhi Fu, Ling Gao, Zhenshun Cheng, Qiaofa Lu, Yi Hu, Guangwei Luo, Ke Wang, Yang Lu, Huadong Li, Shuzhen Wang, Shunan Ruan, Chengqing Yang, Chunlin Mei, Yi Wang, Dan Ding, Feng Wu, Xin Tang, Xianzhi Ye, Yingchun Ye, Bing Liu, Jie Yang, Wen Yin, Aili Wang, Guohui Fan, Fei Zhou, Zhibo Liu, Xiaoying Gu, Jiuyang Xu, Lianhan Shang, Yi Zhang, Lianjun Cao, Tingting Guo, Yan Wan, Hong Qin, Yushen Jiang, Thomas Jaki, Frederick G Hayden, Peter W Horby, Bin Cao, Chen Wang
BACKGROUND: No specific antiviral drug has been proven effective for treatment of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Remdesivir (GS-5734), a nucleoside analogue prodrug, has inhibitory effects on pathogenic animal and human coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro, and inhibits Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2 replication in animal models. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial at ten hospitals in Hubei, China...
May 16, 2020: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32371934/respiratory-virus-shedding-in-exhaled-breath-and-efficacy-of-face-masks
#6
Nancy H L Leung, Daniel K W Chu, Eunice Y C Shiu, Kwok-Hung Chan, James J McDevitt, Benien J P Hau, Hui-Ling Yen, Yuguo Li, Dennis K M Ip, J S Malik Peiris, Wing-Hong Seto, Gabriel M Leung, Donald K Milton, Benjamin J Cowling
We identified seasonal human coronaviruses, influenza viruses and rhinoviruses in exhaled breath and coughs of children and adults with acute respiratory illness. Surgical face masks significantly reduced detection of influenza virus RNA in respiratory droplets and coronavirus RNA in aerosols, with a trend toward reduced detection of coronavirus RNA in respiratory droplets. Our results indicate that surgical face masks could prevent transmission of human coronaviruses and influenza viruses from symptomatic individuals...
April 3, 2020: Nature Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31020663/piperacillin-tazobactam-vs-carbapenems-for-patients-with-bacterial-infection-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Marie Warrer Petersen, Anders Perner, Fredrik Sjövall, Andreas Bender Jonsson, Morten Steensen, Jakob Steen Andersen, Michael Patrick Achiam, Niels Frimodt-Møller, Morten Hylander Møller
INTRODUCTION: Early empirical broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy is recommended for patients with severe infections, including sepsis. β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations or carbapenems are often used to ensure coverage of likely pathogens. Piperacillin/tazobactam is proposed as a carbapenem-sparing agent to reduce the incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and superinfections. In the recently published MERINO trial, increased mortality from piperacillin/tazobactam was suggested in patients with bacteraemia with resistant Escherichia coli or Klebsiella species...
August 2019: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30174448/insight-into-acinetobacter-baumannii-pathogenesis-global-resistance-mechanisms-of-resistance-treatment-options-and-alternative-modalities
#8
REVIEW
Muhammad Asif, Iqbal Ahmad Alvi, Shafiq Ur Rehman
Acinetobacter baumannii , once considered a low-category pathogen, has emerged as an obstinate infectious agent. The scientific community is paying more attention to this pathogen due to its stubbornness to last resort antimicrobials, including carbapenems, colistin, and tigecycline, its high prevalence of infections in the hospital setting, and significantly increased rate of community-acquired infections by this organism over the past decade. It has given the fear of pre-antibiotic era to the world. To further enhance our understanding about this pathogen, in this review, we discuss its taxonomy, pathogenesis, current treatment options, global resistance rates, mechanisms of its resistance against various groups of antimicrobials, and future therapeutics...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30165426/incidence-of-acute-kidney-injury-among-critically-ill-patients-with-brief-empiric-use-of-antipseudomonal-%C3%AE-lactams-with-vancomycin
#9
Diana J Schreier, Kianoush B Kashani, Ankit Sakhuja, Kristin C Mara, Mohammad S Tootooni, Heather A Personett, Sarah Nelson, Andrew D Rule, James M Steckelberg, Aaron J Tande, Erin F Barreto
BACKGROUND: Nephrotoxins contribute to 20%-40% of acute kidney injury (AKI) cases in the intensive care unit (ICU). The combination of piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) and vancomycin (VAN) has been identified as nephrotoxic, but existing studies focus on extended durations of therapy rather than the brief empiric courses often used in the ICU. The current study was performed to compare the risk of AKI with a short course of PTZ/VAN to with the risk associated with other antipseudomonal β-lactam/VAN combinations...
April 24, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29962118/pneumonia-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
REVIEW
Marcos I Restrepo, Oriol Sibila, Antonio Anzueto
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a frequent comorbid condition associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Pneumonia is the most common infectious disease condition. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the impact of pneumonia in patients with COPD. We will evaluate the epidemiology and factors associated with pneumonia. We are discussing the clinical characteristics of COPD that may favor the development of infections conditions such as pneumonia. Over the last 10 years, there is an increased evidence that COPD patients treated with inhaled corticosteroids are at increased risk to develp pneumonia...
July 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/21482729/hiv-and-tuberculosis-a-deadly-human-syndemic
#11
REVIEW
Candice K Kwan, Joel D Ernst
A syndemic is defined as the convergence of two or more diseases that act synergistically to magnify the burden of disease. The intersection and syndemic interaction between the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics have had deadly consequences around the world. Without adequate control of the TB-HIV syndemic, the long-term TB elimination target set for 2050 will not be reached. There is an urgent need for additional resources and novel approaches for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of both HIV and TB...
April 2011: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29686441/rheumatic-fever-new-diagnostic-criteria
#12
REVIEW
Izabela Szczygielska, Elżbieta Hernik, Beata Kołodziejczyk, Agnieszka Gazda, Maria Maślińska, Piotr Gietka
Rheumatic fever (RF) is an autoimmune disease associated with group A β-hemolytic streptococcal infection, in the course of which the patient develops carditis, arthritis, chorea, subcutaneous nodules and erythema marginatum. Rheumatic fever diagnosis is based on the Jones criteria, developed in 1944, then revised twice by the American Heart Association (AHA), in 1992 and recently in 2015. The last revision of the Jones criteria consists mainly in the supplementation of the major criteria with echocardiographic examination, the introduction of a concept of subclinical carditis and the isolation of low, medium and high risk populations among the patients...
2018: Reumatologia
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29534630/antibiotic-use-in-the-intensive-care-unit-optimization-and-de-escalation
#13
REVIEW
Maureen Campion, Gail Scully
Appropriate antimicrobial therapy is essential to ensuring positive patient outcomes. Inappropriate or suboptimal utilization of antibiotics can lead to increased length of stay, multidrug-resistant infections, and mortality. Critically ill intensive care patients, particularly those with severe sepsis and septic shock, are at risk of antibiotic failure and secondary infections associated with incorrect antibiotic use. Through the initiation of active empiric antibiotic therapy based upon local susceptibilities, daily evaluation of signs and symptoms of infection and narrowing of antibiotic therapy when feasible, providers can streamline the treatment of common intensive care unit (ICU) infections...
December 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28052967/official-american-thoracic-society-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-clinical-practice-guidelines-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-adults-and-children
#14
David M Lewinsohn, Michael K Leonard, Philip A LoBue, David L Cohn, Charles L Daley, Ed Desmond, Joseph Keane, Deborah A Lewinsohn, Ann M Loeffler, Gerald H Mazurek, Richard J O'Brien, Madhukar Pai, Luca Richeldi, Max Salfinger, Thomas M Shinnick, Timothy R Sterling, David M Warshauer, Gail L Woods
BACKGROUND: Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuberculosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its diagnosis remain. METHODS: A task force supported by the American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America searched, selected, and synthesized relevant evidence...
January 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27993382/syphilis
#15
REVIEW
Edward W Hook
Syphilis is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Treponema pallidum that is endemic in low-income countries and and occurs at lower rates in middle-income and high-income countries. The disease is of both individual and public health importance and, in addition to its direct morbidity, increases risk of HIV infection and can cause lifelong morbidity in children born to infected mothers. Without treatment the disease can progress over years through a series of clinical stages and lead to irreversible neurological or cardiovascular complications...
April 15, 2017: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27932390/official-american-thoracic-society-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-clinical-practice-guidelines-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-adults-and-children
#16
David M Lewinsohn, Michael K Leonard, Philip A LoBue, David L Cohn, Charles L Daley, Ed Desmond, Joseph Keane, Deborah A Lewinsohn, Ann M Loeffler, Gerald H Mazurek, Richard J O'Brien, Madhukar Pai, Luca Richeldi, Max Salfinger, Thomas M Shinnick, Timothy R Sterling, David M Warshauer, Gail L Woods
BACKGROUND: Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuberculosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its diagnosis remain. METHODS: A task force supported by the American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America searched, selected, and synthesized relevant evidence...
January 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27886201/cryptococcal-meningitis-epidemiology-immunology-diagnosis-and-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Peter R Williamson, Joseph N Jarvis, Anil A Panackal, Matthew C Fisher, Síle F Molloy, Angela Loyse, Thomas S Harrison
HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is by far the most common cause of adult meningitis in many areas of the world that have high HIV seroprevalence. In most areas in Sub-Saharan Africa, the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis is not decreasing despite availability of antiretroviral therapy, because of issues of adherence and retention in HIV care. In addition, cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals is a substantial problem: the risk of cryptococcal infection is increased in transplant recipients and other individuals with defects in cell-mediated immunity, and cryptococcosis is also reported in the apparently immunocompetent...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27321363/antibiotic-duration-and-timing-of-the-switch-from-intravenous-to-oral-route-for-bacterial-infections-in-children-systematic-review-and-guidelines
#18
REVIEW
Brendan J McMullan, David Andresen, Christopher C Blyth, Minyon L Avent, Asha C Bowen, Philip N Britton, Julia E Clark, Celia M Cooper, Nigel Curtis, Emma Goeman, Briony Hazelton, Gabrielle M Haeusler, Ameneh Khatami, James P Newcombe, Joshua Osowicki, Pamela Palasanthiran, Mike Starr, Tony Lai, Clare Nourse, Joshua R Francis, David Isaacs, Penelope A Bryant
Few studies are available to inform duration of intravenous antibiotics for children and when it is safe and appropriate to switch to oral antibiotics. We have systematically reviewed antibiotic duration and timing of intravenous to oral switch for 36 paediatric infectious diseases and developed evidence-graded recommendations on the basis of the review, guidelines, and expert consensus. We searched databases and obtained information from references identified and relevant guidelines. All eligible studies were assessed for quality...
August 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27465879/tenofovir-alafenamide
#19
REVIEW
Amanda K Gibson, Bhavik M Shah, Puja H Nambiar, Jason J Schafer
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, efficacy, safety, and place in therapy for tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). DATA SOURCES: A search using PubMed was conducted (2004 to May 2016) using the following keywords: tenofovir alafenamide, TAF, and GS-7340. Articles were evaluated for content, and bibliographies were reviewed. Data available exclusively as abstracts from major infectious diseases and HIV conferences were also evaluated for inclusion. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Studies included were in vitro investigations; phase I, II, and III clinical trials; and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluations...
November 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27583589/critical-care-for-dengue-in-adult-patients-an-overview-of-current-knowledge-and-future-challenges
#20
REVIEW
Junxiong Pang, Yee-Sin Leo, David C Lye
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to update and summarize the current knowledge about clinical features, management, and risk factors of adult dengue patients requiring intensive care with consequently higher risk of mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: Increasingly, there are more adult dengue patients who require intensive care. This may be due to a shift in epidemiology of dengue infection from mainly a pediatric disease toward adult disease. In addition, multiorgan dysfunction was observed to be a key risk factor for ICU admission and mortality...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
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