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Epigenetic mechanisms for disease

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5 papers 100 to 500 followers
By Faye Kehler Family Physician and GP Anesthetist since 1987 interested in all aspects of Medicine
Susan E Puumala, H Eugene Hoyme
Epigenetic mechanisms are external modifications of DNA that cause changes in gene function and are involved in many diseases. Specific examples of pediatric diseases with a known or suspected epigenetic component include Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, childhood leukemia, allergies, asthma, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, childhood obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Currently, epigenetically active treatments are being used to treat childhood leukemia. Potential epigenetically active treatments and preventive regimens are under study for other diseases...
January 2015: Pediatrics in Review
Connie M Weaver, Dorothy Teegarden, Ailsa Welch, Nahla Hwalla, Sophie Lelièvre
This article summarizes presentations from the International Breast Cancer and Nutrition workshop held during the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA, on 28 April 2014. An international collaboration was described among teams from low-, middle-, and high-income countries addressing environmental factors, especially diet, and epigenetic interactions that affect the risk of chronic disease. Speakers addressed opportunities and challenges involved in this type of international collaboration, assessing diet and nutritional status across a wide range of cultures, and research tools and discoveries from this group...
September 2014: Advances in Nutrition
Huihui Xu, Xiaoyan Wu, Hao Qin, Wenfang Tian, Junliang Chen, Lina Sun, Mingming Fang, Yong Xu
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common complications associated with diabetes and characterized by renal microvascular injury along with accelerated synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins causing tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Production of type I collagen, the major component of extracellular matrix, is augmented during renal fibrosis after chronic exposure to hyperglycemia. However, the transcriptional modulator responsible for the epigenetic manipulation leading to induction of type I collagen genes is not clearly defined...
July 2015: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Neal Smith, Carmelo Nucera
CONTEXT: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is the most lethal of all thyroid cancers and one of the most aggressive human carcinomas. In the search for effective treatment options, research toward targeted, personalized therapies is proving to be a path with great potential. As we gain a deeper understanding of the genetic (eg, BRAF(V600E), PIK3CA, TP53, hTERT mutations, etc) and epigenetic (eg, histone methylation, histone de-acetylation, microRNA regulatory circuits, etc) alterations driving ATC, we are able to find targets when developing novel therapies to improve the lives of patients...
January 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ivana V Yang, Brent S Pedersen, Einat Rabinovich, Corinne E Hennessy, Elizabeth J Davidson, Elissa Murphy, Brenda Juan Guardela, John R Tedrow, Yingze Zhang, Mandal K Singh, Mick Correll, Marvin I Schwarz, Mark Geraci, Frank C Sciurba, John Quackenbush, Avrum Spira, Naftali Kaminski, David A Schwartz
RATIONALE: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an untreatable and often fatal lung disease that is increasing in prevalence and is caused by complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetic mechanisms control gene expression and are likely to regulate the IPF transcriptome. OBJECTIVES: To identify methylation marks that modify gene expression in IPF lung. METHODS: We assessed DNA methylation (comprehensive high-throughput arrays for relative methylation arrays [CHARM]) and gene expression (Agilent gene expression arrays) in 94 patients with IPF and 67 control subjects, and performed integrative genomic analyses to define methylation-gene expression relationships in IPF lung...
December 1, 2014: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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