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Ellen Flint, Steven Cummins, Amanda Sacker
OBJECTIVE: To determine if promotion of active modes of travel is an effective strategy for obesity prevention by assessing whether active commuting (walking or cycling for all or part of the journey to work) is independently associated with objectively assessed biological markers of obesity. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of data from the wave 2 Health Assessment subsample of Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS). The exposure of interest, commuting mode, was self reported and categorised as three categories: private transport, public transport, and active transport...
August 19, 2014: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Anthony A Laverty, Christopher Millett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Amanda L Rebar, Mitch J Duncan, Camille Short, Corneel Vandelanotte
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity, sitting behaviour, and mental health problems are detrimental to health-related quality of life but typically are considered as independent determinants. This study tested how these factors clustered together as profiles of subgroups of people and whether the clusters differed as a function of physical and mental health-related quality of life. METHODS: In 2012, Australian adults (N =1,014) self-reported their physical and mental health-related quality of life, physical activity, sitting time, depression, anxiety, and stress using a web-based survey...
October 20, 2014: BMC Public Health
Manuel S Ortiz, Joshua F Willey, Jessica J Chiang
How psychological stress gets under the skin and contributes to increase the odds for the onset and progression of chronic diseases has been object of abundant research. In this literature review, evidence about the role that both acute (natural phenomenon, marital conflict, a social evaluative task) and chronic stress (stress at work, and the perception of being discriminated) as well as interpersonal stress have on physical health, is examined. Behavioral (lack of physical activity, smoking, lack of adherence) and physiological (dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axis, immune system and inflammatory response) mechanisms through which psychological stress may contribute to the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease (altering blood pressure, heart rate reactivity, hemoconcentration and pro-coagulation function), and two key processes involved in cancer progression (angiogenesis and metastasis) are discussed...
June 2014: Revista Médica de Chile
Aristides M Machado-Rodrigues, Ana Santana, Augusta Gama, Isabel Mourão, Helena Nogueira, Victor Rosado, Jorge Mota, Cristina Padez
OBJECTIVE: The positive impacts of active travel on health markers still require further research, especially in youth populations with higher risk of obesity. The present study aimed to analyze the associations between blood pressure and adiposity risk (BPAR) and active travel to school in children. METHODS: The sample comprised 665 Portuguese children (345 boys) aged 7-9 years. Data on height, weight, and skinfold thickness were collected by a trained fieldworker as well as data on BPAR between March 2009 and January 2010 (data were analyzed in 2012-2013)...
December 2014: Preventive Medicine
Jenna Panter, Simon Griffin, Alice M Dalton, David Ogilvie
OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictors of uptake and maintenance of walking and cycling, and of switching to the car as the usual mode of travel, for commuting. METHODS: 655 commuters in Cambridge, UK reported all commuting trips using a seven-day recall instrument in 2009 and 2010. Individual and household characteristics, psychological measures relating to car use and environmental conditions on the route to work were self-reported in 2009. Objective environmental characteristics were assessed using Geographical Information Systems...
December 2013: Preventive Medicine
David K Humphreys, Anna Goodman, David Ogilvie
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a relationship exists between active commuting and physical and mental wellbeing. METHOD: In 2009, cross-sectional postal questionnaire data were collected from a sample of working adults (aged 16 and over) in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study. Travel behaviour and physical activity were ascertained using the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ) and a seven-day travel-to-work recall instrument from which weekly time spent in active commuting (walking and cycling) was derived...
August 2013: Preventive Medicine
Rodrigo S Reis, Adriano A F Hino, Diana C Parra, Pedro C Hallal, Ross C Brownson
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity plays a role in the acquisition of heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancer. The impact of such noncommunicable diseases on low- and middle-income countries is a major global health concern, but most studies in this area have focused on high-income countries. A better understanding of the factors that may influence physical activity in low- and middle-income countries is needed. PURPOSE: This study describes the prevalence of cycling and walking for transportation and their association with personal and environmental factors in adults from three state capitals in Brazil...
February 2013: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Daniel Fuller, Lise Gauvin, Yan Kestens, Mark Daniel, Michel Fournier, Patrick Morency, Louis Drouin
OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between residential exposure to BIXI (BIcycle-taXI)-a public bicycle share program implemented in Montreal, Quebec, in 2009, which increases accessibility to cycling by making available 5050 bicycles at 405 bicycle docking stations-and likelihood of cycling (BIXI and non-BIXI) in Montreal over the first 2 years of implementation. METHODS: Three population-based samples of adults participated in telephone surveys. Data collection occurred at the launch of the program (spring 2009), and at the end of the first (fall 2009) and second (fall 2010) seasons of implementation...
March 2013: American Journal of Public Health
Christopher M Fischer, Czarina E Sanchez, Mark Pittman, David Milzman, Kathryn A Volz, Han Huang, Shiva Gautam, Leon D Sanchez
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Public bikeshare programs are becoming increasingly common in the United States and around the world. These programs make bicycles accessible for hourly rental to the general public. We seek to describe the prevalence of helmet use among adult users of bikeshare programs and users of personal bicycles in 2 cities with recently introduced bikeshare programs (Boston, MA, and Washington, DC). METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study of adult bicyclists in Boston, MA, and Washington, DC...
August 2012: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Matthew P Herring, Patrick J O'Connor, Rodney K Dishman
PURPOSE: Why physically active people report lower anxiety than those who are inactive is not well understood. This study examined whether physical self-concept and self-esteem would mediate associations of self-reported physical activity with anxiety disorder symptoms in young women, a population with elevated risk for developing an anxiety disorder. METHODS: College women (N = 1036, mean ± SD = 19.7 ± 2.9 yr) completed a physical activity recall, the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire, and the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire...
October 2014: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Scott J Strath, Leonard A Kaminsky, Barbara E Ainsworth, Ulf Ekelund, Patty S Freedson, Rebecca A Gary, Caroline R Richardson, Derek T Smith, Ann M Swartz
The deleterious health consequences of physical inactivity are vast, and they are of paramount clinical and research importance. Risk identification, benchmarks, efficacy, and evaluation of physical activity behavior change initiatives for clinicians and researchers all require a clear understanding of how to assess physical activity. In the present report, we have provided a clear rationale for the importance of assessing physical activity levels, and we have documented key concepts in understanding the different dimensions, domains, and terminology associated with physical activity measurement...
November 12, 2013: Circulation
Matthew A Stults-Kolehmainen, Rajita Sinha
BACKGROUND: Psychological stress and physical activity (PA) are believed to be reciprocally related; however, most research examining the relationship between these constructs is devoted to the study of exercise and/or PA as an instrument to mitigate distress. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to review the literature investigating the influence of stress on indicators of PA and exercise. METHODS: A systematic search of Web of Science, PubMed, and SPORTDiscus was employed to find all relevant studies focusing on human participants...
January 2014: Sports Medicine
S Moylan, H A Eyre, M Maes, B T Baune, F N Jacka, M Berk
Regular physical activity exerts positive effects on anxiety disorder symptoms, although the biological mechanisms underpinning this effect are incompletely understood. Numerous lines of evidence support inflammation and oxidative and nitrogen stress (O&NS) as important in the pathogenesis of mood and anxiety disorders, and physical activity is known to influence these same pathways. This paper reviews the inter-relationships between anxiety disorders, physical activity and inflammation and O&NS, to explore whether modulation of inflammation and O&NS may in part underpin the positive effect of physical activity on anxiety disorders...
May 2013: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Elisabeth Zschucke, Katharina Gaudlitz, Andreas Ströhle
Several epidemiological studies have shown that exercise (EX) and physical activity (PA) can prevent or delay the onset of different mental disorders, and have therapeutic benefits when used as sole or adjunct treatment in mental disorders. This review summarizes studies that used EX interventions in patients with anxiety, affective, eating, and substance use disorders, as well as schizophrenia and dementia/mild cognitive impairment. Despite several decades of clinical evidence with EX interventions, controlled studies are sparse in most disorder groups...
January 2013: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
Mark Hamer, Severine Sabia, G David Batty, Martin J Shipley, Adam G Tabák, Archana Singh-Manoux, Mika Kivimaki
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory processes are putative mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of physical activity. An inverse association between physical activity and inflammation has been demonstrated, but no long-term prospective data are available. We therefore examined the association between physical activity and inflammatory markers over a 10-year follow-up period. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants were 4289 men and women (mean age, 49.2 years) from the Whitehall II cohort study...
August 21, 2012: Circulation
Harold W Kohl, Cora Lynn Craig, Estelle Victoria Lambert, Shigeru Inoue, Jasem Ramadan Alkandari, Grit Leetongin, Sonja Kahlmeier
Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. We summarise present global efforts to counteract this problem and point the way forward to address the pandemic of physical inactivity. Although evidence for the benefits of physical activity for health has been available since the 1950s, promotion to improve the health of populations has lagged in relation to the available evidence and has only recently developed an identifiable infrastructure, including efforts in planning, policy, leadership and advocacy, workforce training and development, and monitoring and surveillance...
July 21, 2012: Lancet
Adrian E Bauman, Rodrigo S Reis, James F Sallis, Jonathan C Wells, Ruth J F Loos, Brian W Martin
Physical inactivity is an important contributor to non-communicable diseases in countries of high income, and increasingly so in those of low and middle income. Understanding why people are physically active or inactive contributes to evidence-based planning of public health interventions, because effective programmes will target factors known to cause inactivity. Research into correlates (factors associated with activity) or determinants (those with a causal relationship) has burgeoned in the past two decades, but has mostly focused on individual-level factors in high-income countries...
July 21, 2012: Lancet
Paul Poirier, Thomas D Giles, George A Bray, Yuling Hong, Judith S Stern, F Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Robert H Eckel
Obesity is becoming a global epidemic in both children and adults. It is associated with numerous comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), type 2 diabetes, hypertension, certain cancers, and sleep apnea/sleep-disordered breathing. In fact, obesity is an independent risk factor for CVD, and CVD risks have also been documented in obese children. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality as well as reduced life expectancy. Health service use and medical costs associated with obesity and related diseases have risen dramatically and are expected to continue to rise...
February 14, 2006: Circulation
Renee D Goodwin
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the association between regular physical activity and mental disorders among adults in the United States. METHODS: Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to compare the prevalence of mental disorders among those who did and did not report regular physical activity using data from the National Comorbidity Survey (n = 8098), a nationally representative sample of adults ages 15-54 in the United States...
June 2003: Preventive Medicine
2014-10-20 18:17:42
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